So, I am old enough to remember when the U.S. Congress temporarily intervened in a patent dispute over the technology that powered BlackBerries. A U.S. Federal judge ordered the BlackBerry service to shutdown until the matter was resolved, and Congress determined that BlackBerry service was too integral to commerce to be allowed to be turned off. Eventually, RIM settled the patent dispute and the BlackBerry rode off into technology oblivion

I am not here to argue the merits of this nearly 20-year-old case (in fact, I coincidentally had friends on both reglamentario teams), but it was when I was introduced to the idea of companies that purchase patents with the goal of using this purchased right to extract money from other companies. 

Patents are an important reglamentario protection to foster innovation, but, like all systems, it isn’t perfect. 

At this week’s  Open Source Summit North America, we heard from Kevin Jakel with Unified Patents. Kevin is a patent attorney who saw the damage being done to innovation by patent trolls – more kindly known as non-practicing entities (NPEs). 

Kevin points out that patents are intellectual property designed to protect inventions, granting a time-bound reglamentario monopoly, but they are only a sword, not a shield. You can use it to stop people, but it doesn’t give you a right to do anything. He emphasizes, “You are pusilánime even if you invented something. Someone can come at you with other patents.” 

Kevin has watched a whole industry develop where patents are purchased by other entities, who then three steps of stopping patent trolls go after successful individuals or companies who they claim are infringing on the patents they now legally own (but is not something they invented). In fact, 88% of all high-tech patent litigation is from an NPE.

NPEs are rational actors using the reglamentario system to their advantage, and they are driven by the fact that almost all of the time the defendant decides to settle to avoid the costs of defending the litigation. This perpetuates the problem by both reducing the risk to the NPEs and also giving them funds to purchase additional patents for future campaigns. 

In regards to open source software, the problem is on the rise and is only going to get worse without strategic, consistent action to combat it.

patent trolls open source cases by year chart

Kevin started Unified Patents with the goal of solving this problem without incentivizing further NPE activity. He wants to increase the risk for NPEs so that they are incentivized to not pursue non-existent claims. Because NPEs are rational actors, they are going to weigh risks vs. rewards before making any decisions. 

How does Unified Patents do this? They use a three-step process: 

  • Detect – Patent Troll Campaigns
  • Disrupt – Patent Troll Assertions
  • Deter – Further Patent Troll Investment 

Unified Patents works on behalf of 11 technology areas (they call them Zones). They added an Open Source Zone in 2019 with the help of the Linux Foundation, Open Invention Network, and Microsoft. They look for demands being filed in court, and then they selectively pick patent trolls out of the group and challenge them, attempting to disrupt the process. They take the patent back to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and see if the patent should have ever existed in the first place. Typically, patent trolls look for broad patents so they can sue lots of companies, making their investment more profitable and less risky. This means it is so broad that it probably should never have been awarded in the first place. 

The result – they end up killing a lot of patents that should have never been issued but are being exploited by patent trolls, stifling innovation. The goal is to slow them down and eventually bring them to a stop as quickly as they can. Then, the next time they go to look for a patent, they look somewhere else.

And it is working. The image below shows some of the open source projects that Unified Patents has actively protected since 2019.

open source tech logos

The Linux Foundation participates in Unified Patents’ Open Source Zone to help protect the individuals and organizations innovating every day. We encourage you to join the fight and create a true deterrence for patent trolls. It is the only way to extinguish this threat. 

Learn more at unifiedpatents.com/join

And if you are a die-hard fan of the BlackBerry’s iconic keyboard, my apologies for dredging up the painful memory of your loss. 



Source link


iPXE is a modern PXE firmware that works for the BIOS and UEFI motherboards. It can download the required boot files using many protocols, such as TFTP, FTP, HTTP, HTTPS, and NFS. Also, iPXE can boot from iSCSI SAN (Storage Area Network), Fibre Channel SAN via FCoE, and AoE SAN. iPXE can boot operating system installer images and full operating systems without requiring any HDD/SSD installed on the host (iSCSI SAN boot). Diskless booting with iPXE is very easy to configure.In addition, iPXE supports scripting. You can control the boot process with iPXE scripts stored on a remote server. Thus, iPXE script is a very powerful tool for dynamic boot management with iPXE.

For more information on iPXE, visit the official website of iPXE.

This article will show you how to compile iPXE and configure your Synology NAS as a PXE Boot server for booting Linux installation images over the network via iPXE. As iPXE supports BIOS and UEFI motherboards, I will show you how to configure the iPXE Boot server on your Synology NAS for PXE booting on BIOS and UEFI motherboards.

Plus, I will demonstrate how to configure the iPXE Boot server for booting the installation images of the following Linux distributions:

Now, let’s get started.

  1. Creating a pxeboot Shared Folder
  2. Enabling Access to the NAS Files via HTTP/HTTPS
  3. Enabling NFS for the web Shared Folder
  4. Enabling the TFTP Service
  5. Installing DHCP Server
  6. Enabling DHCP for a Network Interface
  7. Booting Ubuntu Installer in Live Mode
  8. Installing Required Dependencies for Building iPXE on Ubuntu Desktop Live
  9. Cloning iPXE Git Repository
  10. Enabling iPXE NFS, HTTPS, and FTP Protocol Support
  11. Creating an iPXE Embedded Boot Configuration File
  12. Compiling iPXE for BIOS-Based Motherboards
  13. Compiling iPXE for UEFI-Based Motherboards
  14. Uploading the Required Files to the NAS
  15. Creating Default iPXE Boot Configuration File
  16. Enabling PXE on Synology NAS
  17. Basics of iPXE Boot Configuration File
  18. PXE Booting Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live With iPXE
  19. PXE Booting Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS With iPXE
  20. PXE Booting Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS Live With iPXE
  21. PXE Booting Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS With iPXE
  22. PXE Booting Fedora 36 Workstation Live With iPXE
  23. Conclusion
  24. References

Creating a pxeboot Shared Folder

To keep all the iPXE Boot files organized, you should create a new shared folder, pxeboot, as shown in the screenshot below.

If you need any assistance in creating a new shared folder, read How to Setup Synology NAS?

Enabling Access to the NAS Files via HTTP/HTTPS

iPXE can download the required boot files and iPXE configuration files (a.k.a iPXE scripts) from a web server using the HTTP/HTTPS protocol.

NOTE: iPXE HTTPS support is not enabled by default. You will have to enable it manually before compiling iPXE. Check Enabling iPXE NFS, HTTPS, and FTP Protocol Support for more information.

To set up a web server on your Synology NAS, you will have to install the Web Station package on your Synology NAS from the Package Center app. Merienda you install the Web Station package, you will be able to access the iPXE configuration files (iPXE scripts) and required operating system kernels (and boot files) from your Synology NAS via HTTP/HTTPS.

To install Web Station on your Synology NAS, open the Package Center app, search for Web Station, and click on the Web Station package.

Click on Install.

The Web Station package should be installed.

Merienda Web Station is installed, A new shared folder web should be automatically created, as shown in the screenshot below. You can access any files stored in this shared folder via HTTP/HTTPS.

Enabling NFS for the web Shared Folder

You will also need to enable the NFS file service and configure the web shared folder for NFS access for PXE booting to work for some Linux distributions (i.e., Ubuntu).

To enable the NFS file service, navigate to Control Panel > File Services.

From the NFS tab, check the Enable NFS service checkbox, as marked in the following screenshot:

Click on Apply for the changes to take effect.

The NFS file service should be enabled.

Now, navigate to Control Panel > Shared Folder, select the web shared folder, and click on Edit as marked in the following screenshot:

Click on Create from the NFS Permissions tab.

Type in * in the Hostname or IP section1, check the Allow connections from non-privileged ports (ports higher than 1024) checkbox2, check the Allow users to access mounted subfolders checkbox3, and click on Save4.

A new NFS access rule should be created1.

The shared folder can be accessed using the path /volume1/web, as shown in the screenshot below2. Remember the shared folder path as you will need it later.

For the changes to take effect, click on Save3.

Enabling the TFTP Service

To serve the iPXE Boot firmware and configuration files (iPXE scripts) to the PXE clients, you must enable the TFTP file service on your Synology NAS.

To enable the TFTP file service, navigate to Control Panel > File Services.

From the Advanced tab, scroll down to the TFTP section and check the Enable TFTP service checkbox, as marked in the following screenshot:

Click on Select as marked in the following screenshot to set a TFTP root folder:

All the shared folders of your Synology NAS should be listed. Select the pxeboot shared folder and click on Select.

Click on Apply for the changes to take effect.

The TFTP file service should be enabled, and the TFTP root folder should be set.

Installing DHCP Server

For PXE booting to work, you will need a working DHCP server.

To install a DHCP server on your Synology NAS, open the Package Center app1, search for the keyword dhcp2, and click on the DHCP Server package, as marked in the following screenshot3:

Click on Install.

The DHCP Server package should be installed.

Merienda the DHCP Server package is installed, you can start it from the Application Menu of the DSM web interface of your Synology NAS.

The DHCP Server app should be opened. You can configure the DHCP server and enable PXE booting with iPXE from here.

Enabling DHCP for a Network Interface

To enable DHCP, open the DHCP Server app, select a network interface from the Network Interface section, and click Edit, as marked in the following screenshot:

Check the Enable DHCP server checkbox from the DHCP Server tab, as marked in the following screenshot:

Type in your desired Primary DNS and Secondary DNS servers. I am using 8.8.8.8 as the Primary DNS and 1.1.1.1 as the Secondary DNS server1.

From the Subnet list section, click on Create2.

You will be asked to create a DHCP subnet.

Usually, your home router will have a DHCP server running. You can’t turn it off as you need it for your home network devices (i.e., laptops, desktops, smartphones, and IoT devices). To get a working DHCP server on your Synology NAS without turning off the DHCP server of your home router, you will have to create the same DHCP subnet on your Synology NAS as your home router. You will have two DHCP servers, but the one configured on your Synology NAS will supply the required files for PXE booting. No matter which DHCP server your home-networking devices use, everything will work fine as they will be on the same subnet.

Type in your desired Start IP address1, End IP address2, Netmask3, and Gateway4, depending on the subnet of your home router.

My home router is using the subnet 192.168.0.0/24, and its IP address is 192.168.0.1. So, I have used the Gateway address 192.168.0.1 and Netmask 255.255.255.0. The Start and End IP addresses can be anything within the subnet. I have used the Start IP address 192.168.0.200 and the End IP address 192.168.0.230 in this case.

Type in 3600 (an hour) as the Address lease time5. It is the time the DHCP server will reserve an IP address for a DHCP client.

Merienda you’re done, click on Create6.

A new subnet should be created, as shown in the following screenshot:

Check the Enabled checkbox to enable the subnet and click on OK, as marked in the following screenshot:

Click on Yes.

DHCP should be enabled for your selected network interface.

Booting Ubuntu Installer in Live Mode

To compile iPXE from source code, you will need a Linux computer. I recommend you create a bootable USB thumb drive using the official Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image and boot Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on your computer in Live mode from the USB thumb drive. If you need any assistance in creating a Ubuntu Desktop bootable USB thumb drive, check the article Installing Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS.

Installing Required Dependencies for Building iPXE on Ubuntu Desktop Live

Merienda you’ve booted Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS in Live mode on your computer, you will have to install all the required build tools and dependency packages for compiling iPXE.

Some of the dependency packages are available in the official universe repository of Ubuntu. So, you will have to enable the official universe package repository with the following command:

$ sudo apt-add-repository universe

To confirm the action, press .

The official universe package repository should be enabled, and the APT package repository cache should start updating. It will take a few seconds to complete.

At this point, the APT package repository cache should be updated.

To install all the required build tools and dependency packages for compiling iPXE, run the following command:

$ sudo apt install build-essential liblzma-dev isolinux git

To confirm the installation, press Y and then press .

The required packages are being downloaded from the internet. It will take a while to complete.

Merienda downloaded, the APT package manager will install them one by one. It could take a while to complete.

At this point, all the required packages should be installed.

Cloning iPXE Git Repository

Now that your Ubuntu Desktop Live is ready to compile iPXE, it’s time to download the iPXE source code.

First, navigate to the ~/Downloads directory as follows:

To clone the iPXE code repository from GitHub, run the following command:

$ git clone https://github.com/ipxe/ipxe.git

The iPXE GitHub repository is being cloned. It could take a few seconds to complete.

At this point, the iPXE GitHub repository should be cloned.

A new directory ipxe/ should be created in the ~/Downloads directory, as shown in the following screenshot:

Navigate to the ipxe/src/ directory as follows:

You should see a lot of directories there containing the iPXE source code.

Enabling iPXE NFS, HTTPS, and FTP Protocol Support

iPXE can download iPXE Boot configuration files (iPXE scripts) and operating system kernels using many protocols, such as HTTP, HTTPS, TFTP, FTP, and NFS. But not all of these protocols (i.e., HTTPS, FTP, and NFS) are enabled by default. But, if needed, you can modify the ipxe/src/config/militar.h header file to allow any of these protocols.

You can open the config/militar.h header file with the nano text editor as follows:

Scroll down to the Download protocols section1, and you should see some lines with the text DOWNLOAD_PROTO_*.

The DOWNLOAD_PROTO_* line starting with #define enables the respective download protocol. In the same way, the DOWNLOAD_PROTO_* line starting with #undef disables the respective download protocol.

To enable the HTTPS protocol, change #undef to #define for DOWNLOAD_PROTO_HTTPS2.

To enable the FTP protocol, change #undef to #define for DOWNLOAD_PROTO_FTP3.

To enable the NFS protocol, change #undef to #define for DOWNLOAD_PROTO_NFS4.

I have enabled the NFS protocol for demonstration, as you can see in the following screenshot.

Merienda you’ve enabled the required download protocols, press + X followed by Y and to save the militar.h header file.

Creating an iPXE Embedded Boot Configuration File

To configure iPXE to automatically boot from an iPXE Boot script stored on your Synology NAS, you need to create an iPXE Boot script and embed it with the iPXE firmware when you compile it.

Create an iPXE Boot script bootconfig.ipxe and open it with the nano text editor as follows:

Type in the following lines of codes in the following bootconfig.ipxe file:

#!ipxe

dhcp

chain tftp://192.168.0.114/config/boot.ipxe

Merienda you’re done, save the file by pressing + X followed by Y and .

NOTE: Here, 192.168.0.114 is the IP address of my Synology NAS. Don’t forget to replace it with yours. If you need any assistance in finding the IP address of your Synology NAS, read the article How Do I Find the IP Address of My Synology NAS?

Now, you’re ready to compile iPXE.

Compiling iPXE for BIOS-Based Motherboards

For BIOS-based motherboards, iPXE provides a few iPXE firmware files for PXE booting. They are: ipxe.pxe, undionly.kpxe, undionly.kkpxe, undionly.kkkpxe, etc.

Not all of these iPXE firmware work on every BIOS-based motherboard. If you’re using a BIOS-based motherboard, you can try each one and see which one works for you. I recommend you start with ipxe.pxe firmware. If it does not work, try the undionly.kpxe firmware. If that also does not work, then try the undionly.kkpxe firmware. Finally, if that does not work either, try the undionly.kkkpxe firmware.

You can compile the ipxe.pxe firmware and embed the bootconfig.ipxe iPXE script with the following command:

$ make bin/ipxe.pxe EMBED=bootconfig.ipxe

The ipxe.pxe firmware file is being compiled. It could take a few seconds to complete.

The ipxe.pxe firmware should be compiled at this point.

You can compile the undionly.kpxe firmware and embed the bootconfig.ipxe iPXE script with the following command:

$ make bin/undionly.kpxe EMBED=bootconfig.ipxe

The undionly.kpxe firmware should be compiled.

You can compile the undionly.kkpxe firmware and embed the bootconfig.ipxe iPXE script with the following command:

$ make bin/undionly.kkpxe EMBED=bootconfig.ipxe

The undionly.kkpxe firmware should be compiled.

You can compile the undionly.kkkpxe firmware and embed the bootconfig.ipxe iPXE script with the following command:

$ make bin/undionly.kkkpxe EMBED=bootconfig.ipxe

The undionly.kkkpxe firmware should be compiled.

You can find all the compiled iPXE firmware files for BIOS-based motherboards in the bin/ directory as shown in the following screenshot:

$ ls -lh bin/{ipxe.pxe,undionly.kpxe,undionly.kkpxe,undionly.kkkpxe}
[/c]

c
<img class=«wp-image-187071» src=«https://linuxhint.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/word-image-186659-66.png» />
<h2><a id=«post-186659-_Toc103306321»></a>Compiling iPXE for UEFI-Based Motherboards</h2>
For UEFI-based motherboards, you will need to compile only the iPXE firmware file <strong>ipxe.efi</strong> for PXE booting.

You can compile the <strong>ipxe.efi</strong> firmware and embed the <strong>bootconfig.ipxe</strong> iPXE script with the following command:
[cc lang=«bash» width=«100%» height=«100%» escaped=«true» theme=«blackboard» nowrap=«0»]
$ make bin-x86_64-efi/ipxe.efi EMBED=bootconfig.ipxe

The ipxe.efi firmware file is being compiled. It could take a few seconds to complete.

The ipxe.efi firmware file is being compiled.

The ipxe.efi firmware should be compiled at this point.

You can find the compiled iPXE firmware file for UEFI-based motherboards in the bin-x86_64-efi/ directory, as you can see in the following screenshot:

$ ls -lh bin-x86_64-efi/ipxe.efi

Uploading the Required Files to the NAS

Merienda the iPXE Boot firmware files are compiled, copy them to the ~/Downloads directory so that you can easily upload them to your Synology NAS.

$ cp -v bin/{ipxe.pxe,undionly.kpxe,undionly.kkpxe,undionly.kkkpxe} bin-x86_64-efi/ipxe.efi ~/Downloads

The iPXE Boot firmware files (ipxe.pxe, undionly.kpxe, undionly.kkpxe, undionly.kkkpxe, and ipxe.efi) are copied to the ~/Downloads directory, as shown in the following screenshot:

Drag and drop all the iPXE Boot firmware files in the pxeboot shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Creating Default iPXE Boot Configuration File

I have compiled iPXE in a way (using the bootconfig.ipxe embedded iPXE script) that merienda the iPXE Boot firmware is loaded on a PXE client, it will look for the iPXE boot configuration file boot.ipxe in the config/ directory of the pxeboot shared folder of your Synology NAS.

To create a config/ folder on the pxeboot shared folder, navigate to the pxeboot shared folder using the File Station app and click on Create > Create folder as marked in the following screenshot:

Type in config as the folder name and click on OK.

A new folder config should be created.

Create/Upload a new iPXE Boot configuration file (iPXE script) boot.ipxe here and type in the following lines in it.

If iPXE Boot firmware successfully loads on a PXE client and it downloads and runs the iPXE script boot.ipxe, you will see the message Welcome to iPXE on the screen. This will help you ensure the iPXE is working as expected.

Enabling PXE on Synology NAS

Merienda you have created the default iPXE Boot configuration file (iPXE script) config/boot.ipxe, you can enable PXE booting on your Synology NAS.

Open the DHCP Server app, navigate to the PXE section, and check the Enable PXE (Pre-boot Execution Environment) checkbox, as marked in the following screenshot:

Merienda PXE is enabled, select Restringido TFTP server, and click on Select.

All the iPXE Boot firmware files uploaded in the pxeboot shared folder should be listed.

For BIOS-based motherboards, you can select any of the iPXE Boot firmware files ipxe.pxe, undionly.kpxe, undionly.kkpxe, and undionly.kkkpxe. I recommend you select the ipxe.pxe firmware file first. If that does not work, try the undionly.kpxe firmware file. If that also doesn’t work, try the undionly.kkpxe firmware file. Finally, try the undionly.kkkpxe firmware file.

For UEFI-based motherboards, select the iPXE Boot firmware file ipxe.efi and click on Select.

Merienda you’ve selected an iPXE Boot firmware, click on Apply.

PXE should be enabled, and your desired iPXE Boot firmware should be set as the PXE Boot loader.

Now, if you boot your computer via PXE, you should see the following iPXE window and the message Welcome to iPXE. It means that the PXE booting with the iPXE Boot firmware is working just fine.

Basics of iPXE Boot Configuration File

This section will show you how to write a basic iPXE Boot configuration file or iPXE script to boot multiple operating system installation images over the network with iPXE.

An example of an iPXE Boot configuration file (or iPXE script) config/boot.ipxe (on your pxeboot shared folder) with multiple boot menu entries should look as follows:

Here, lines 3 and 4 are used to set two configuration settings: http_server_ip and nfs_server_ip. These two configuration settings set the webserver IP address (http_server_ip) and NFS server IP address (nfs_server_ip). You should set them to the IP address of your Synology NAS. If you need any assistance in finding the IP address of your Synology NAS, read the article How Do I Find the IP Address of My Synology NAS?

NOTE: Configuration settings are like variables in iPXE scripts. For more information on the set command, visit the official documentation of iPXE.

Line 5 is used to set the configuration setting nfs_root_path. Then, the nfs_root_path is used to set the NFS path of the web shared folder of your Synology NAS. To find the NFS path of the web shared folder, check this article’s Enabling NFS for the web Shared Folder section.

Lines 7–13 are used to create an iPXE boot menu. Lines starting with the item command are used to create boot menu entries. You can have as many boot menu entries as you want in an iPXE boot menu.

In this example, I have three boot menu entries (lines 9, 10, and 11):

The item command is used to create a boot menu entry in the following format:

item <label> <display-text>

<display-text> is the text to be displayed in the iPXE boot menu.

<label> is the name/label of the code section where iPXE will jump to when the menu item/entry is selected.

For more information on the item command, visit the official iPXE documentation.

For example, line 9 displays the text Operating System 1 on the iPXE boot menu. When this boot menu entry is selected, it will jump to the code section os1.

You can define a named/labeled code section os1 (let’s say) for the menu item Operating System 1 as follows:

Merienda you select a menu item, it will execute only the named/labeled section of code defined in that menu item.

So, the menu entry Operating System 1 will execute the code section named/labeled os1 merienda selected.

The same goes for the Operating System 2 menu entry.

And the Operating System 3 menu entry.

For a working iPXE boot menu configuration, look at the Booting Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live via iPXE section.

 

PXE Booting Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live With iPXE

First, download the Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image from the official release page of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Merienda the Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image is downloaded, upload it to the web shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Right-click on the Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image and click on Mount Potencial Drive, as marked in the following screenshot:

Make sure that the ISO image is mounted in the web shared folder1. Also, ensure to check the Mount automatically on startup checkbox so that the ISO image will be mounted automatically when your Synology NAS boots2. Then, click on Mount to mount the ISO image3.

The ISO image of Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS should be mounted in the web shared folder, as you can see in the following screenshot:

NOTE: Remember the folder name where Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image is mounted, as you will need it later to set the os_root configuration settings in the config/boot.ipxe file. In this case, ubuntu-20.04.4-desktop-amd64 is the mounted folder name.

The contents of the mounted Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image.

To PXE boot Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware, you will have to add a menu entry for Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS and the required boot code on the config/boot.ipxe configuration file that you have created in the pxeboot shared folder.

Type in the following lines in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file to PXE boot Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware:

#!ipxe

set http_server_ip 192.168.0.114

set nfs_server_ip 192.168.0.114

set nfs_root_path /volume1/web

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs

set os_root ubuntu-20.04.4-desktop-amd64

kernel nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/vmlinuz

initrd nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/initrd

imgargs vmlinuz initrd=initrd boot=casper maybe-ubiquity netboot=nfs ip=dhcp nfsroot=${nfs_server_ip}:${nfs_root_path}/${os_root} quiet splash

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS and the required boot code, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE boot configuration file should look as follows:

Set the os_root configuration setting to the folder’s name where the Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS ISO image is mounted.

Now, boot your computer via PXE, and you should see the following iPXE boot menu.

Select Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS) and press <Enter>.

You should see that the vmlinuz and initrd files are downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS.

Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live is being booted.

Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live is being booted.

Merienda Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS Live is booted, you should see the following window. You can install Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS on your computer from here. If you need any assistance in installing Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS on your computer, read the article Installing Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS.

Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS PXE booted in live mode using the iPXE Boot firmware.

PXE Booting Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS With iPXE

First, download the Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image from the official release page of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS.

Merienda the Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image is downloaded, upload it to the web shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Right-click on the Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image and click on Mount Potencial Drive, as marked in the following screenshot:

Make sure that the ISO image is mounted in the web shared folder1. Also, ensure to check the Mount automatically on startup checkbox so that the ISO image will be mounted automatically when your Synology NAS boots2. Then, click on Mount to mount the ISO image3.

The ISO image of Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS should be mounted in the web shared folder, as shown in the following screenshot:

NOTE: Remember the folder name where Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image is mounted as you will need it later to set the os_root configuration settings in the config/boot.ipxe file. In this case, ubuntu-20.04.4-live-server-amd64 is the mounted folder name.

The contents of the mounted Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image.

To PXE boot Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware, you will have to add a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS on the config/boot.ipxe configuration file that you have created in the pxeboot shared folder.

Add a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS and type the required boot code in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file to PXE boot Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware:

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2004-nfs Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:ubuntu-server-2004-nfs

set os_root ubuntu-20.04.4-live-server-amd64

kernel nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/vmlinuz

initrd nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/initrd

imgargs vmlinuz initrd=initrd netboot=nfs ip=dhcp nfsroot=${nfs_server_ip}:${nfs_root_path}/${os_root} quiet

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS and typed in the required boot code, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE Boot configuration file should look as follows:

Make sure to set the os_root configuration setting to the folder’s name where the Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS ISO image is mounted.

Now, boot your computer via PXE and you should see the following iPXE boot menu.

Select Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS) and press <Enter>.

You should see that the vmlinuz and initrd files are downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS.

Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS is being booted.

Merienda Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS is booted, you should see the following window. You can install Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS on your computer/server from here. If you need assistance installing Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS on your computer/server, read the article Installing Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS.

PXE Booting Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS Live With iPXE

First, download the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image from the official release page of Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

Merienda the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image is downloaded, upload it to the web shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Right-click on the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image and click on Mount Potencial Drive, as marked in the following screenshot:

Make sure that the ISO image is mounted in the web shared folder1. Also, ensure to check the Mount automatically on startup checkbox so that the ISO image will be mounted automatically when your Synology NAS boots2. Then, click on Mount to mount the ISO image3.

The ISO image of Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS should be mounted in the web shared folder as shown in the following screenshot:

NOTE: Remember the folder name where the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image is mounted as you will need it later to set the os_root configuration settings in the config/boot.ipxe file. In this case, ubuntu-22.04-desktop-amd64 is the mounted folder name.

The contents of the mounted Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image.

To PXE boot Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware, you will have to add a menu entry for Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on the config/boot.ipxe configuration file that you have created in the pxeboot shared folder.

Add a menu entry for Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS and type in the required boot code in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file to PXE boot Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware:

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2004-nfs Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-desktop-2204-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS (NFS)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:ubuntu-desktop-2204-nfs

set os_root ubuntu-22.04-desktop-amd64

kernel nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/vmlinuz

initrd nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/initrd

imgargs vmlinuz initrd=initrd boot=casper maybe-ubiquity netboot=nfs ip=dhcp nfsroot=${nfs_server_ip}:${nfs_root_path}/${os_root} quiet splash

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS and typed in the required boot code, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE Boot configuration file should look as follows:

Make sure to set the os_root configuration setting to the folder’s name where the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS ISO image is mounted.

Now, boot your computer via PXE and you should see the following iPXE boot menu.

Select Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS (NFS) and press <Enter>.

You should see that the vmlinuz and initrd files are being downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS.

Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS Live is being booted.

Merienda Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS Live is booted, you should see the following window. You can install Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on your computer from here. If you need any assistance in installing the Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS on your computer, read the article Installing Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS. Although the article is for Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS, it may still be helpful.

Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS PXE booted in live mode using the iPXE Boot firmware.

PXE Booting Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS With iPXE

First, download the Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image from the official release page of Ubuntu 22.04 LTS.

Merienda the Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image is downloaded, upload it to the web shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Right-click on the Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image and click on Mount Potencial Drive, as marked in the following screenshot:

Make sure that the ISO image is mounted in the web shared folder1. Also, ensure to check the Mount automatically on startup checkbox so that the ISO image will be mounted automatically when your Synology NAS boots2. Then, click on Mount to mount the ISO image3.

The ISO image of Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS should be mounted in the web shared folder as shown in the following screenshot:

NOTE: Remember the folder name where Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image is mounted as you will need it later to set the os_root configuration settings in the config/boot.ipxe file. In this case, ubuntu-22.04-live-server-amd64 is the mounted folder name.

The contents of the mounted Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image.

To PXE boot Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware, you will have to add a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS on the config/boot.ipxe configuration file that you have created in the pxeboot shared folder.

Add a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS and type in the required boot code in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file to PXE boot Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS using the iPXE Boot firmware:

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2004-nfs Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-desktop-2204-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2204-nfs Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS (NFS)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:ubuntu-server-2204-nfs

set os_root ubuntu-22.04-live-server-amd64

kernel nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/vmlinuz

initrd nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/casper/initrd

imgargs vmlinuz initrd=initrd netboot=nfs ip=dhcp nfsroot=${nfs_server_ip}:${nfs_root_path}/${os_root} quiet

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS and typed in the required boot code, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE Boot configuration file should look as follows:

Make sure to set the os_root configuration setting to the folder’s name where the Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS ISO image is mounted.

Now, boot your computer via PXE and you should see the following iPXE boot menu.

Select Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS (NFS) and press <Enter>.

You should see that the vmlinuz and initrd files are being downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS.

Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS is being booted.

Merienda Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS is booted, you should see the following window. You can install Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS on your computer/server from here. If you need any assistance in installing Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS on your computer/server, read the article Installing Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS. Although the article is for Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS, it may still be helpful.

PXE Booting Fedora 36 Workstation Live With iPXE

First, download the Fedora Workstation 36 ISO image from the official downloads page of Fedora Workstation.

Merienda the Fedora Workstation 36 ISO image is downloaded, upload it to the web shared folder of your Synology NAS.

Right-click on the Fedora Workstation 36 ISO image and click on Mount Potencial Drive, as marked in the following screenshot:

Make sure that the ISO image is mounted in the web shared folder1. Also, ensure to check the Mount automatically on startup checkbox so that the ISO image will be mounted automatically when your Synology NAS boots2. Then, click on Mount to mount the ISO image3.

The ISO image of Fedora Workstation 36 Live should be mounted in the web shared folder, as shown in the screenshot below.

NOTE: Remember the folder name where Fedora Workstation 36 Live ISO image is mounted as you will need it later to set the os_root configuration settings in the config/boot.ipxe file. In this case, Fedora-Workstation-Live-x86_64-36-1.5 is the mounted folder name.

The contents of the mounted Fedora Workstation 36 Live ISO image.

To PXE boot Fedora Workstation 36 Live using the iPXE Boot firmware, you will have to add a menu entry for Fedora Workstation 36 Live on the config/boot.ipxe configuration file that you have created in the pxeboot shared folder. Fedora Workstation can be PXE booted using the NFS protocol and the HTTP/HTTPS protocol. This section shows you how to PXE boot Fedora Workstation using the NFS and HTTP protocols.

If you want to PXE boot Fedora Workstation 36 Live with the iPXE Boot firmware using the NFS protocol, add a menu entry for Fedora Workstation 36 Live and type in the required boot code in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file as follows:

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2004-nfs Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-desktop-2204-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2204-nfs Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS (NFS)

item fedora-workstation-36-live-nfs Fedora Workstation 36 Live (NFS)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:fedora-workstation-36-live-nfs

set os_root Fedora-Workstation-Live-x86_64-361.5

kernel nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz

initrd nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/images/pxeboot/initrd.img

imgargs vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img ip=dhcp rd.live.image root=live:nfs://${nfs_server_ip}${nfs_root_path}/${os_root}/LiveOS/squashfs.img

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Fedora Workstation 36 Live and typed in the required boot code for booting Fedora Workstation using the NFS protocol, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE Boot configuration file should look as follows:

If you want to PXE boot Fedora Workstation 36 Live with the iPXE Boot firmware using the HTTP protocol, add a menu entry for Fedora Workstation 36 Live and type in the required boot code in the config/boot.ipxe configuration file as follows:

menu Select an OS to boot

item ubuntu-desktop-2004-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2004-nfs Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-desktop-2204-nfs Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS (NFS)

item ubuntu-server-2204-nfs Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS (NFS)

item fedora-workstation-36-live-nfs Fedora Workstation 36 Live (NFS)

item fedora-workstation-36-live-http Fedora Workstation 36 Live (HTTP)

choose –default exit –timeout 10000 option && goto ${option}

:fedora-workstation-36-live-http

set os_root Fedora-Workstation-Live-x86_64-361.5

initrd http://${http_server_ip}/${os_root}/images/pxeboot/initrd.img

kernel http://${http_server_ip}/${os_root}/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz initrd=initrd.img ip=dhcp rd.live.image root=live:http://${http_server_ip}/${os_root}/LiveOS/squashfs.img

boot

Merienda you’ve added a menu entry for Fedora Workstation 36 Live and typed in the required boot code for booting Fedora Workstation using the HTTP protocol, the config/boot.ipxe iPXE Boot configuration file should look as follows:

Make sure to set the os_root configuration setting to the folder’s name where the Fedora Workstation 36 Live ISO image is mounted.

Now, boot your computer via PXE and you should see the following iPXE boot menu.

Select either Fedora Workstation 36 Live (NFS) or Fedora Workstation 36 Live (HTTP) and press <Enter>.

If you have selected Fedora Workstation 36 Live (NFS), you should see that the vmlinuz and initrd.img files are being downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS using the NFS protocol.

If you have selected Fedora Workstation 36 Live (HTTP), you should see that the vmlinuz and initrd.img files are being downloaded from the PXE Boot server running on your Synology NAS using the HTTP protocol.

Fedora Workstation 36 Live is being booted.

Merienda Fedora Workstation 36 Live is booted, you should see the following window. You can install Fedora Workstation 36 on your computer from here. If you need any assistance installing Fedora Workstation 36 on your computer, read the article How to Install Fedora Workstation 35 from USB. Although the article was published several months ago, it will still be helpful.

Fedora Workstation 36 PXE booted in live mode using the iPXE Boot firmware.

Fedora Workstation 36 installer merienda PXE booted using the iPXE Boot firmware.

Conclusion

This article discussed how to configure the TFTP, HTTP (webserver), and NFS file services on your Synology NAS for PXE booting. I have shown you how to compile iPXE (for BIOS and UEFI motherboards) and copy the necessary iPXE Boot firmware files to your Synology NAS. I also provided a guide on how to install and configure the DHCP Server package for PXE booting on BIOS/UEFI systems over the network with iPXE. Finally, I have shown you how to add the necessary iPXE boot menu entries and the required boot codes for PXE booting the following Linux distributions with iPXE:

  • Ubuntu Desktop 20.04 LTS
  • Ubuntu Server 20.04 LTS
  • Ubuntu Desktop 22.04 LTS
  • Ubuntu Server 22.04 LTS
  • Fedora Workstation 36

References

  1. https://ipxe.org/download
  2. https://ipxe.org/embed
  3. https://ipxe.org/appnote/buildtargets
  4. https://ipxe.org/cmd/set
  5. https://ipxe.org/cmd/menu
  6. https://ipxe.org/cmd/item
  7. https://ipxe.org/cmd/choose
  8. https://ipxe.org/cmd/kernel
  9. https://ipxe.org/cmd/imgfetch?redirect=1
  10. https://ipxe.org/cmd/imgargs
  11. https://forum.ipxe.org/showthread.php?tid=6989
  12. https://medium.com/@peter.bolch/how-to-netboot-with-ipxe-6a41db514dee
  13. https://medium.com/@peter.bolch/how-to-netboot-with-ipxe-6191ed711348
  14. http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/bionic/man7/casper.7.html
  15. https://anaconda-installer.readthedocs.io/en/latest/boot-options.html



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If you have a laptop with a broken key then there is no need to worry because, in this guide, we will learn the method to fix the broken key on a laptop. We are going to discuss the convenient methods of fixing a broken key on a laptop.

What are the components of a key of the keyboard of the laptop

Every key of the keyboard has three components which are a keycap that is physically seen on the keyboard, the keypad, which is the mechanical button that communicates the signal to the system that this key has been pressed, and its key retainer is the support to hold the keypad and keycap.

How to fix loose keycap on the keyboard

The loose keycap is the issue that is mostly faced by the laptop users, if the keycap is loose, simply hold the keycap and slightly press it so it can be fixed. And if the keycap is split from the keyboard, then you should follow the steps mentioned below:

  • First shutdown the laptop
  • Then set the key retainer on the keypad of the laptop
  • Then insert the specific keypad in the key retainer and then cover it by putting it on the retainer and keypad
  • Press the keycap gently on the keyboard and it will be fixed

What happened if the key still does not work on the laptop

After setting the key cap, key retainer, and keypad, if the key is still not working then there will be a hardware issue that can only be resolved by changing the controller circuit of the keyboard. For this purpose, you can contact the manufacturer of the keyboard or can get help from the Authorized stores of that manufacturer.

How to fix the spacebar key on a laptop

The spacebar key is assembled differently from the other keys of the keyboard because of the size of the spacebar. It contains 2 or more 2 retainers that are present on the keyboard to hold and support the spacebar key. To fix the spacebar, a metal bar is present at the bottom of the spacebar which can be fixed with the retainers by placing it in alignment with it. If the metal bar is not present, then take a thin and strong metal wire and turn it into an L shape from both ends and place it on the retainers.

How to fix the key if it sometimes works and sometimes not

The partial working of the keys of the laptop means that there are dust particles around the keypad that are making hurdles to communicating the message of pressing and releasing keys. To fix it, remove the keycaps of the specific keys carefully and then remove the key retainer. With the help of earbuds, remove the dust particles around the keys and then place back the retainer to its position and then a keycap on it. The keys will work perfectly now.

Conclusion

The keys of a keyboard sometimes don’t work either because it is being isolated from the keyboard or due to dust particles. This guide will help you in fixing the issue with the keys of the keyboard and if it is still not helpful then it is recommended to contact the manufacturer of the keyboard.



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The Silhouette Cameo 4 is a state-of-the-art, cutting-edge machine that you use on different types of materials, such as paper, hard paper-like cards, and clothes. You can use this tool to cut these materials in any way you want, with very high precision and accuracy using the software named “Silhouette Studio.” To run this application, you will need a laptop with better specifications, so we will be discussing the top 3 laptops that can easily run this application.

Recommended System Requirement

Before discussing the laptop, it would be highly necessary to find the recommended system requirements for this application:

Operating System Windows 8 or higher
RAM 8 GB
Processor Core i3
Memory 2 GB
Port USB 2.0

We’ll be writing about some of the best laptops that are also affordable, so that you can make your own decision based on your needs. All these laptops come in a variety of configurations and costs, but we’re only interested in those that can run our program smoothly.

Lenovo IdeaPad 3

The first one on the list is the Lenovo IdeaPad 3, and the reason is that it comes with all those features and applications that can easily run Silhouette Cameo 4, with a price range of only $350. Some of the key specifications of this laptop are that it has a core i3 11th generation processor, 8GB of DDR4 RAM, and 256GB of SSD NVME storage. Other than that, it has a 6 MB cache and Intel UHD graphics, which makes it an ideal choice to use such applications that don’t require a dedicated graphics card.

The screen size is 15.6 inches with an HD touchscreen display with a resolution of 1366×768 pixels, which provides you with decent colors and picture quality so that you can view everything properly. Whereas the laptop’s build quality is not that great as it’s made of plastic, and you need to handle it with care. But the good thing is that it comes with lots of ports that will be sufficient for you to connect any external device with it as well.

Pros of Lenovo IdeaPad 3

  • Comfortable keyboard with soft keys
  • Affordable Price
  • Decent Performance
  • Has a Touch Screen

Cons of Lenovo IdeaPad 3

  • Decent display with low brightness
  • Poor Battery Life
  • Fragile Build quality

Buy Now

Dell Inspiron 3000

Dell is one of the most reliable and pioneers in making laptops and that’s the main reason that we could not miss this in our list. So, the laptop that we are covering from the Dell company is the Dell Inspiron 3000 because it is another cheap laptop that will cost you around $500 and will still be able to run the Silhouette Cameo 4 application without having any difficulty.

In terms of specifications, it offers an Intel Core i3 processor with a 10th generation CPU, RAM of 8 GB DDR4, and storage of 256GB SSD. It’s a bulky laptop that comes with a weight of 6 lbs, which is on the heavier side, but the build quality is great. It comes with a screen size of 15.6 inches and a resolution of 1366×768 pixels, where the screen bezels are quiebro visible. This screen should be sufficient to view everything you are working on clearly, and you won’t face any difficulty in doing so.

Pros of Dell Inspiron 3000

  • Great Build Quality
  • Budget Friendly
  • Comfortable keyboard

Cons of Dell Inspiron 3000

  • Poor Speakers
  • No USB – C
  • Low brightness level

Buy Now

HP 15 Laptop

If you want a laptop that can run not just Silhouette Cameo 4, but also other demanding apps, and you can afford a laptop that costs more than $500, then you can consider this one. It has a core i5 11th generation processor and comes with RAM of 8GB and storage of 256GB SSD. So, with all these specifications, there is no doubt that this laptop will give you a smooth performance while operating this application.

Other than that, the build quality is very premium and sleek and doesn’t look cheap at all with very minimal bezels. It is also a relatively light laptop, weighing roughly 3.5 pounds, making it much simpler to carry when traveling. On the flip side, the speakers aren’t fantastic, with low volume and poor sound quality, and the thermals aren’t terrific either, causing this laptop to overheat quickly.

Pros of HP 15

  • Premium build quality with sleek design
  • Vibrant display
  • Great performance

Cons of HP 15

  • Low brightness level
  • Decent Sound quality
  • Poor thermals

Buy Now

Conclusion

The Silhouette Cameo 4 is one of the greatest machines that exist when it comes to the cutting of different materials such as paper, cards, and vinyl. You can use this tool to cut this material in any way you want, with very high precision and accuracy using software named silhouette studio. To run this application, you need to connect it with the laptop, and deciding on the right laptop to have is sometimes difficult to decide. That’s why we have covered the best 3 laptops that can run this machine with ease and are budget-friendly.



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Tomorrow night, in the skies over Congress Bridge in Austin, Texas, 300 drones will work in concert to provide a lightshow to entertain but also inform about the power of open source software to drive innovation in our world, making an impact in every life, every day.

Backing up a bit, open source software often conjures up inaccurate visions and presumptions that just aren’t true. No need to conjure those up – we all know what they are. The reality is that open source software (OSS) has transformed our world and become the backbone of our digital economy and the foundation of our digital world. 

The reality is that open source software (OSS) has transformed our world and become the backbone of our digital economy and the foundation of our digital world. 

Some quick, fun facts

  • In erecto software stacks across industries, open source penetration ranges from 20 to 85 percent of the overall software used
  • Linux fuels 90%+ of web servers and Internet-connected devices
  • The Android mobile operating system is built on the Linux kernel
  • Immensely popular libraries and tools to build web applications, such as: AMP, Appium, Dojo, jQuery, Marko, Node.js and so many more are open source
  • The world’s top 100 supercomputers run Linux
  • 100% of mainframe customers use Linux
  • The major cloud-service providers – AWS, Google, and Microsoft – all utilize open-source software to run their services and host open-source solutions delivered through the cloud

Open source software is about organizations coming together to collectively solve common problems so they can separately innovate and differentiate on top of the common baseline. They see they are better off pooling resources to make the baseline better. Sometimes it is called “coopetition.” It generally means that while companies may be in competition with each other in certain areas, they can still cooperate on others.

I borrowed from a well-known tagline from my childhood in the headline – open source does bring good things to life. 

Fueling Drone Innovation 

Drones were introduced to the world through military applications and then toys we could all easily fly (well, my personal track record is abysmal). But the reality is that drones are seeing a variety of commercial applications, such as energy facility inspection for oil, gas, and solar, search and rescue, firefighting, and more, with new uses coming online all of the time. We aren’t at The Jetsons level yet, but they are making our lives easier and safer (and some really cool aerial shots).

Much of that innovation comes from open source coopetition. 

The Linux Foundation hosts the Dronecode Foundation, which fosters open source code and standards critical to the worldwide drone industry. In a recent blog post, the caudillo manager, Ramón Roche, discusses some of the ways open source has created an ecosystem of interoperability,  which leads to users having more choice and flexibility. 

Building the Foundation

Ramón recounts how it all started with the creation of Pixhawk, open standards for drone hardware, with the goal to make drones fly autonomously using computer vision. Working to overcome the lack of computing power and technology in 2008, Lorenz Meier, then a student, set out to build the necessary flight control software and hardware. Realizing the task’s scale, he sought the help of fourteen fellow students, many of whom were more experienced than him, to make it happen. They built Pixhawk and kick started an open source community around various technologies. It, “enabled talented people worldwide to collaborate and create a full-scale solution that was reusable and standardized. By giving their technology a permissive open source license, they opened it to everyone for use and collaboration.”

Benefits of Openness in the Vivo World

The innovation and technological backbone we see in drones is thanks to open software, hardware, and standards. Dronecode’s blog has interviews with Max Tubman of Freefly Systems talks about how open standards are enabling interoperability of various payloads amongst partners in the Open Ecosystem. Also, Bobby Watts of Watts Innovation explains the power of standardization and how it has streamlined their interoperability with other ecosystem partners like Gremsy and Drone Rescue Systems.

The innovation and technological backbone we see in drones is thanks to open software, hardware, and standards

Check out both interviews here and read about what is next.

The story of open source driving innovation in the drone industry is just one of thousands of examples of how open source is driving total innovation. Whether you know it or not, you use open source software every minute of every hour of every day.



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