This article explains how to generate square waves using the MATLAB square() function.

This powerful programming language for scientific computing has an extensive library of functions for generating waves of various shapes.

The following section explains using the square() function to generate square waves. In the following, we will show you practical examples and pictures of how to create square waves with different parameters and display them graphically in the MATLAB environment.

MATLAB Square Function Syntax


x = square ( t )
x = square ( t, duty )


MATLAB Square Function Description

MATLAB square() function generates square waves from time vectors or matrices. This function also allows you to set duty cycle values, often used in electronic models to control DC pulse width modulation (PWM) motors. The MATLAB function square() generates a square wave at “x” from the time matrix “t”. The period of the wave generated at “x” is 2pi over the elements of “t”. The output values of “x” are -1 for negative half cycles and 1 for positive half cycles. The duty cycle is set via the “duty” input sending the percentage of the positive cycle entered when the function is called.

What Is It and How To Create a Time Vector To Generate Waves in MATLAB

Before we see how a square wave is generated with this function, we will briefly show you what vectors and time matrices are. They are part of the input arguments of all functions used to create waves, regardless of their form or the function that generates them. The following is a time vector “t” representing one second in duration:

 t =  0  0.1000  0.2000  0.3000  0.4000  0.5000  0.6000  0.7000  0.8000  0.9000  1.0000

It is essential to clarify that a time vector with ten elements corresponds to a sampling rate of 10 Hz and is not recommended in practice. Hence, we make it only as an example so you can see better what we are talking about because of a vector with a sampling of 1Kz. It would consist of 1000 elements displayed on the screen. A low sampling rate would distort the waveform, as shown below:

Next, let’s look at the expression for one of the ways MATLAB creates this kind of regular-interval time vector:

t = time start : interval in seconds : time end;

So, to generate this vector, we would need to write the following line of code:


How To Create a Square Wave With the MATLAB Square Function

We will create a square wave using the square() function in this example. This wave has a duration of one second, a frequency of 5Hz, and an amplitude of +1, -1. To do this, we first create a time vector “t” of one-second duration with a sampling frequency of 1KHz or intervals of 1ms.

Then, we specify the frequency of the wave. The input argument of square() that sets this value is expressed in radians, so we have to convert from Hz to radians or express it in the latter. For practical reasons, it is always better to express frequency in Hz. Therefore, in this example, we will do the conversion as follows:

With the time vector “t” created and the frequency “rad” converted to radians, we now call the square() function as follows:

To graph the wave in the MATLAB environment, we will use the following functions:

plot ( t, x );
axis( [ 0 11.2 1.2 ] )
grid( «on» );

In this case, as the duty cycle input is not used, this value defaults to 50%,. So, square() produces a symmetric wave. Copy and paste the following fragment into the command console to visualize the generated wave.

% Here the wave is generated
t = 0 : 0.001 : 1;
rad =5 .* 2 .* pi;
x = square ( rad .* t );

% Here the wave is graphed
plot  ( t, x );
axis  ( [ 0 11.2 1.2 ] );
grid  ( «on» );

The following image shows the waveform generated by the square() function plotted in the MATLAB environment:

How To Control The Frequency, Amplitude, Duty Cycle, and Sampling Rate When Generating a Wave With the MATLAB square() Function.

This example shows how to control the frequency, amplitude, duty cycle, and sampling rate parameters. For this purpose, we will create a simple console application that will be used to input these values and then automatically graph the wave generated from the input parameters. We will use the prompt() and input() functions to input these parameters through the console. We will store these parameters in the following variables:

s_rate: sampling frequency in Hz

freq: frequency of the wave in Hz

Amp: Amplitude of the wave

d_cycle: duty cycle

These variables are processed respectively to set the parameters “t_sample” in the time vector, the input arguments “rad” and “dc” to the square() function, and the multiplication hacedor “amp” to adjust the amplitude of the wave.

Below, we see the full script for this application. To make it readable, we have divided the code into six blocks, explaining what each of them does in the comments at the beginning.

while 1

% Here we enter the sampling rate «s_rate» in Hz and divide 1
% by this value to get the time interval between samples
% expressed in seconds «t_sample» and create the time vector.
          prompt = ‘Enter a sample rate’;
          s_rate = input (prompt);
          t_sample = 1 ./ s_rate;
          t = 0: t_sample : 1;

% Here we enter the frequency «f» in Hz of the wave and convert.
% it to radians «rad».
          prompt = ‘Enter a frequency’;
          f = input (prompt);
          rad = f .* 2 .* pi;

% Here we enter the duty cycle «dc» expressed as a percentage.
          prompt = ‘Enter a duty cycle’;
          dc = input (prompt);

% Here we set the amplitude of the wave.
          prompt = ‘Enter a amplitude’;
          amp = input (prompt);

% Here we call the function square() with the parameters «rad» that
% sets the frequency and «dc» which sets the duty cycle. Later
% we multiply the result by the value stored in «amp» to
% set the amplitude of the wave to «x».
          x = amp *square (rad * t, dc);

% Here we graph the generated wave.
          plot (t, x);
          axis ([0 1 -5 5])
          grid («on»);

Create a script, paste this code, and press “Run”. To close the application, press Ctrl+c. In the following images, you can see the resulting waves with different parameters entered into the application via the command console:

This image corresponds to an 8 Hz wave with a sampling rate of 1Kz, a duty cycle of 50%, and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 2.

This image corresponds to a 10 Hz wave with a sampling rate of 10Kz, a duty cycle of 85%, and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 6

This image corresponds to a 3 Hz wave with a sampling rate of 1Kz, a duty cycle of 15%, and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 8.


This article explained how to generate square waves using the MATLAB function square().
It also includes a brief description of the time vectors and matrices that form the input arguments of this type of function, so you can get a complete understanding of how most of the waveform generators in the Signal Analysis Toolbox in MATLAB work. This article also includes practical examples, graphs, and scripts that show how the square() function works in MATLAB. We hope you found this MATLAB article helpful. See other Linux Hint articles for more tips and information.

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In the following article, we will explain how to use the MATLAB function xline() to create enhiesto lines and insert them into a graph. These types of lines are often used as markers in graphs and charts. Therefore, we will also show you how to add text labels to these lines so that you can fully master this function in MATLAB. We have also included practical examples with code snippets and images in this article to better explain how you can create or draw enhiesto lines in this powerful programming environment for scientific computing. We also review the input arguments and data types accepted by xline(). We will also explain how to use each of these arguments to specify the desired attributes for the line you want to create.

MATLAB xline Function Syntax

xline ( x )
xline ( x, LineSpec )
xline ( x, LineSpec, labels )

Description and Examples for MATLAB Function xline()

The MATLAB function xline() creates and draws enhiesto lines at a specified point on the x-axis of a graph. It also provides the ability to place text labels and specify the format and attributes of the line color, width, linetype, etc. of the line being created. Next, we will look at each input argument for this function and explain the function each of them performs.

x: Specifies the coordinate of the “x” axis from which to draw the enhiesto line. This input accepts scalars and vectors to specify the coordinates.

LineSpec: specifies the style and color attributes of the line. The data type that LineSpec accepts is a character vector or string scalar.

Labels: enters the text labels we want to add to the enhiesto line. This input accepts strings and cell arrays of character vectors.

How to Create a Derecho Line with the xline() Function in MATLAB

In this example, we will show you the simplest way to create a enhiesto line with MATLAB’s xline() function. For this, we will first create an empty axis and enable the grid with the following functions:

Now, we will draw a enhiesto line on this axis. To do this, we call the function xline() sending in “x” the coordinate of the x-axis on which we want to draw the line. In this case, in the middle of the axis, we enter in “x ” the value 0.5. In this example, we use only the “x” input argument, so the line style parameters take the default values. Thus, the line drawn by xline() will be continuous and black. Next, we see the full code. With these functions, we have created the following empty graph:

In the following figure we see the line drawn from the x-axis:

How to Create Multiple Derecho Lines with MATLAB xline() Function

The input “x” to the MATLAB function xline() accepts scalars and vectors. So, it is possible to draw multiple lines by sending to “x” a vector with the coordinates of the multiple lines you want to draw. Next, we will see an example where we send a coordinate vector to draw10 equidistant enhiesto lines on a graph.

How to Set the Color Style and Linetype Using the LinSpec Input of the MATLAB Function xline()

When we draw enhiesto lines with xline(), we have the option to specify the type and color of that line. This is done using the input “LineSpec”. In this example, we will see how to select these attributes. The syntax of the “LineSpec” input for selecting the line style and color is as follows:

‘linetype color’  =  ‘- – g’  =  Dashed line green

Below is a table of the different line types and color options for the LineSpec.

Next, we will see the color options offered by the xline() function.

Now, we use the “LineSpec” input to create a enhiesto line of the dash-dot line type in red color on the same graph we created in the previous example, this time at coordinate 0.2 of the x-axis. To do this, we send the following string in the “LineSpec” input to set these attributes:

Below we can see the code for this.

The following figure shows how the line style and line color attributes can be specified with the LinSpec input of the MATLAB function xline().

How to Add Text Labels to the Derecho Lines of a Plot with MATLAB’s xline() Function

In this example, we show you how to add text labels to the enhiesto lines we create with the xline() function. These labels are sent as character strings at the time of the function call in the “label” input of xline(). We will now see an example of how we create a solid continuous blue line with the label “LinuxHint”. Next, we will see how the input arguments of the xline() function should be sent to create lines with text labels.

In cases where multiple lines of labels need to be created, we must first create a cell array of character vectors with each of these labels in the appropriate order and send this array to the “label” input of the xline() function as in the following example.


In this article, we showed you how to create and draw a enhiesto line on a graph using the MATLAB function xline(). We have described each of the input arguments in detail so that you can fully master this function. We have also included practical examples with image code snippets, showing how to set the style of the enhiesto lines and how to add text labels to them. We hope you found this MATLAB article helpful. See other Linux Hint articles for more tips and information.

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There are several editors available in different distributions of the Linux systems, especially when you are working on the Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system. These editors come in handy when you need to edit or modify something within the file opened, i.e., add, remove, or update information. The “Vi/Vim” editor in Ubuntu 20.04 is very interactive, with various and simple modes to use within it. In today’s guide, we will be discussing the use of different Linux commands to remove extra empty lines from the file opened in the Vi/Vim editor.

Create File:

Get started with this guide by creating a new text file in the current working directory. Thus, we have tried the “touch” query of Linux to create one, i.e., “file.txt”. The output of the “ls” query has shown that the file “file.txt” is also listed in the home folder.

After this file’s creation, we tried to open it within the simple text editor of our system to add some simple text data to it. After adding 5 text lines and 5 empty files, we saved it.

We might think that the empty lines might not be output in the shell on execution, but that’s not the case. We have been running the “cat” query with the file name “file.txt” and have gotten the result of 5 text lines and 5 empty lines for this specific file.

Remove Current Line:

It’s time to open this file within the Vi/Vim editor of the Ubuntu 20.04 system to remove its empty lines. You can use the shown-below “vi” instruction along with the file name.

The Vi/Vim editor would open the file in the ordinario mode of execution. The editor has been displaying simple 5-line text data along with five empty lines, which are not highlighted by this editor. To highlight each line number, we need to set numbers for each.

You must be in the command mode of Vi/Vim editor to set the number for each text line in this file in the Vim editor. For this, you need to press “:” while you are in the ordinario mode. After that, you must use the “Set number” keyword instruction followed by the “Enter” key to set the numbers for all the lines mentioned in the file automatically in a numerical sequence.

The output of using the “Set number” instruction in the command mode of the Vi/Vim editor has been shown in the attached snap. All the lines now have their specific numbers sequentially assigned to them. We have placed the cursor at the 8th line of the file to delete its 8th, 9th, and 10th lines one by one while we are in the ordinario mode of the Vim editor displayed.

We have pressed “dd” in the ordinario mode of the Vim editor to remove its current line each time. So, using the “dd” instruction three times consecutively has made us remove the last three lines. On removal of the last 3 lines, the cursor automatically moves to the upward line, i.e., line 7.

To save this modification, you need to use the command mode by pressing the “:” character followed by the alphabet “x” and Enter key. If there is no problem, your file will be saved.

While saving this file, you can get the warning “Changing a readonly file” as shown.

To remove this warning, try using the “:x” command in the command mode of the Vi/Vim editor along with the exclamation mark “!” as shown. Press the Enter key to save this file using “:x!”.

If the above method doesn’t work for you to remove the warning, try using the chmod instruction to assign read, write, and execution rights to this file via the option “+rwx”.

After saving the file, we displayed its text content using the “cat” instruction merienda again. The output shows that the last three empty lines were successfully removed from the file.

Remove Multiple Lines:

You can also delete multiple empty lines from the opened file in the Vi/Vim editor. For this, place the cursor at the line from where you want to remove the lines, i.e., 5th line.

Go to the command mode using the “:” character and add the number of lines to be deleted with the “dd” instruction with the Enter key, i.e., 3dd to remove 3 consecutive lines at merienda.

The last 3 lines are removed, and the cursor has been moved to the upward line.

Remove Range of Lines:

To remove multiple empty lines, we can also set the range. The range consists of the start and end of lines to be deleted. Let’s say we want to delete all the lines from 4th to 7th in the below shown 7-line file in Vim. So, we have used the command mode to set the range. This range has been started with line 4 and ends with line 7, along with the “d” character.

On execution of this range command, we are left with only the first 3 lines of this file.

Remove All Lines:

To remove all the lines from the file opened in the Vi/Vim editor, it comes with the “%” character usage with the “d” character in the command mode as we did below.

The file will become empty after the execution of the “%d” instruction.

Remove Last Line:

If you want to delete the last most empty line of this file, you can do so by using the “$” character with the “d” character in the command mode of the Vim editor.

The use of the “:$d” instruction has removed the 7th line from this specific file.

You can try out the special character dot “.” With the “d” command in command mode to delete the current line from the file, i.e., line 06.

The current empty line “6” has been removed.


This guide discusses the best of the best examples to display how we can remove empty and unwanted lines along with the text lines from the file. For this, we have started this guide with the creation of a simple file and opening it in the Vi/Vim editor. After this, we discussed how we can remove a single current line, multiple consecutive lines, some range of lines, the last line, and all the lines from the file.

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The “redo” term is used as the opposite of the “undo” term used in several fields of study, i.e., it will remove the changes made by “undo” and take you to the llamativo state. While doing any important task, have you ever encountered a situation where you have accidentally done something that you never wanted to do? If so, then you may have felt that the mistake that happened accidentally should be “undone” to get back to the llamativo status of the work. In Ubuntu 20.04, we came up with its Vim editor that uses the “undo” and “redo” commands in it to perform opposite functions. So, we will be discussing the use of “redo” command today.

Vim Editor Installation

To get started, you must ensure that the Vim editor utility has been fully configured on your end. For this, you need to check out its installed version by the use of a simple “version” command. The output has demonstrated that the “vim” editor is not found. Thus, it also displayed some of the useful “Apt” instructions to install it from scratch on your system.

Thus, we have been trying the very first “apt” package installation instruction to install the “vim” editor on the Ubuntu 20.04 Linux operating system as quickly as possible. Try to update your system before any installation to avoid any issues during the installation process. It is required to add the currently logged-in user’s password to continue this administrative task. Therefore, we have provided it with the password and hit the key “Enter,” i.e., the installation has started.

In a few seconds, it will show us some questions about the space concerns of our system, i.e., the installation may take up to 34.6 MB of space on our system, and if we want to install it or not. You have to press the “y” key to continue this process, as we did below.

Our system will start installing it at our end without any hindrance. So, sit calmly and wait until it’s completed, i.e., approaches 100 percent.

At the end of the installation of the Vim editor on the Ubuntu 20.04 Linux system, we may get some processing lines that are like those shown below. Now, it’s fully installed and functional in our system.

Create File

To perform a redo operation, we need some text files to be opened in the vim editor. While listing the home directory contents with the use of the “ls” command, we have found that there is no text file in it, i.e., we need to create one in this case. So, we have tried Ubuntu’s “touch” query at the console query area and created a new text file named “file.txt” as shown. After listing the contents of the current working directory again with the “ls” instruction, we find that the text file has been successfully created in it.

We have added five lines of text data to it using the text editor first. After trying the cat instruction along with the name of a file, we have displayed the data within the “file.txt” file on the console. You can see it has a total of 5 lines.

Open File in Vim

To perform the redo shortcut on the file, we will be opening it (file.txt) within the Vim editor using the “vim” instruction along with the file name as displayed in the small image.

After the execution of the vim instruction, we got the shown-below vim screen quickly opened in the console shell of the Ubuntu 20.04 system. It is giving us the attention message along with some quick shortcuts to be used in the vim editor, i.e., how to quit, how to edit, and many more. Press the Enter key, Esc key, or space until it opens your file.txt data in the editor.

Our 5-line text file “file.txt” has been successfully launched within the corriente mode of the vim editor as per the shown screen below. Within the corriente mode, you cannot insert the file contents, so you need to move within the insert mode of Vim by pressing the “I” key on the keyboard.

Vim Redo vs Undo Command

On pressing the “I” key, we got into the insert mode of the vim as shown from the last 2 displayed lines in the image. So, we have to press Enter and remove the 4th line from the file.

After this, we have also removed the 2nd line from the text file using the backspace button while we are in the Insert mode of the Vim editor. Now, you need to save it and move within the corriente mode by pressing the “Esc” key.

To perform undo and redo changes, you must have been in the command mode of the vim. To open the command mode, press “:” on the keyboard. You can try any command in it to make changes to this file. To perform the redo command, we must use the undo command first on this file. So, we have tried the “undo” command within the command area of this Vim editor after the use of the “:” sign. Press Enter to execute the undo instruction as shown in the image.

The 4th line is back in the file as below.

Again, we used the “undo” command.

The 2nd line is also back in the file.

Now, while you are in corriente mode, press “Ctrl+R” to redo the undo command changes that we have just implemented. You can also try the “:redo” command in the command mode of vim.

Using the redo command, you will see that the second line is now deleted.

We have again used the redo “ctrl+R” or “:redo” command.

We are now at our last change made before the use of the “undo” instruction, i.e., 3 lines.


This article has been an informative guide toward the use of “redo” and “undo” commands in the Vim editor. For this, we have explained the terms “undo” and “redo” quiebro well in the introduction. After that, we tried to install Vim and opened the newly created text file in it to perform “undo” and “Redo” commands to see the changes made by the “Redo” especially. The examples given above are very easy to do for every user, especially for learners.

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File sharing programs improve work efficiency and assist in saving time. There are many programs to share files; one of the simplest file-sharing systems is FileZilla, which works on the principle of FTP and allows you the freedom to share files from your Raspberry Pi to your PC or any other device.

In this article, we will guide you on how you can install FileZilla on your Raspberry Pi device and start sharing files to another system.

How to Install FileZilla on Raspberry Pi

Since FileZilla is an open-source file-sharing program, the Raspberry Pi developers include its repository in the official source list, which allows you to easily install it on your device within seconds. To begin the installation, you must need to follow the below-mentioned steps:

Step 1: Update and Upgrade Raspberry Pi Packages

Before beginning the installation of FileZilla, you must need to check whether there is an update available for the currently installed packages on your Raspberry Pi device. You can isse the below-given command to ensure the Raspberry Pi packages are updated successfully:

If there is an update available, you must immediately execute the following command to make your Raspberry Pi system up to date:

Step 2: Install Dependencies for FileZilla on Raspberry Pi

Next, you will need to install some dependencies which are required to operate FileZilla on your Raspberry Pi and to do this, execute the following command:

$ sudo apt install software-properties-common apt-transport-https -y

Step 3: Install FileZilla on Raspberry Pi

After installing the required dependencies on Raspberry Pi, use the following command to install FileZilla on Raspberry Pi successfully:

$ sudo apt install filezilla -y

Step 4: Run FileZilla on Raspberry Pi

Merienda the installation of FileZilla is completed, you can run the following command in the terminal to execute FileZilla on your Raspberry Pi device:

At the FileZilla dashboard, you will need the following things to connect to the system you want to share files:

  • Host: It’s the IP address of a host laptop, PC, or mobile phone.
  • Username: It’s the username of a host laptop, PC, or mobile phone.
  • Password: The password of a host laptop, PC, or mobile phone.
  • Port: FileZilla operates on port 22, so you must select the same port number.

Remove FileZilla From Raspberry Pi

In case you are done with using FileZilla on Raspberry Pi, you can remove it anytime using the following command:

$ sudo apt remove filezilla -y


FileZilla is a simple file sharing application that helps Raspberry Pi users to easily share files between your device and another system like laptop or PC. Its installation on Raspberry Pi is straightforward, which requires installing dependencies and a FileZilla package to complete the installation. To open the FileZilla dashboard, you just need to enter the “filezilla” command and with the host IP address, username, password and port number, you can successfully connect another system to your device and start sharing files with ease.

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Are you on a hunt for some affordable gaming headset with features like a 7.1 surround sound system, super comfortability, excellent noise canceling earcups, and of course, a great mic? Well, this can cause fatigue as the market for gaming headsets is booming, which leaves confusion when choosing the right headset that is too on a tight budget, but you don’t need to worry as we bring you Razer BlackShark V2 X for the review.

Razer BlackShark V2 X

Razer has a triple-headed trademark logo, the most recognized logo in the gaming world. Since its operations in 2005, they’ve won several awards for the best gaming hardware and peripherals.

Razer BlackShark V2 X is a super affordable gaming headset with some serious features that give its competitors a tough time. This is undoubtedly a premium headset, and the gaming pros from several games have confirmed this by praising the comfortability.

Specifications of Razer BlackShark V2 X

We will now discuss the specifications of Razer BlackShark V2 X:

Común Specifications

  • Brand: Razer
  • Model: RZ04-03240100-R3U1
  • Weight: 8.5 ounces or 0.24 kg
  • Dimensions: 7.6L x 6.76W x 3.86H (inches)
  • Date first available: July 30, 2020

Technical Specifications

  • Frequency response: 12 Hz – 28 kHz
  • Sensitivity: 100dB
  • Driver Size: 50 mm (Diameter)
  • Supported drivers from Razer: Raze TriForce
  • Earcups: Memory foam cushions (breathable)
  • Mic sensitivity: -42 dB V / Pa, 1 kHz
  • Posible surround 7.1: Yes, available on only Windows 10
  • Compatibility: PC, PS, XBOX, and mobile phones with 3.5mm port

Features of Razer BlackShark V2 X

We will now discuss the features of Razer BlackShark V2 X:

Razer Triforce 50MM Drivers
Razer BlackShark V2 X takes your audio to the next level with the help of 3-in-1 Razer Triforce 50MM Drivers, which provide you with much better audio clarity that results in faster response times. These drivers also help to focus more on bass, mid-range, and treble distinctly, which means enhanced audio.

Razer HyperClear Cardioid Mic
Razer BlackShark V2 X is equipped with HyperClear Cardioid Mic. It provides excellent voice isolation so your teammates can hear you loud and clear without disturbance. It can be further customized using the Razer Synapse for your Windows PC.

Using Razer Synapse, you can:

  1. Control Mic input levels
  2. Boost your Mic for more sound input
  3. Enhance input clarity by reducing ambient noise
  4. Isolate and increase the volume of vocal range
  5. Reduce sudden loud noises while increasing soft audio
  6. Customize your mic’s sound equalizer
  7. Remove background noise

Noise Cancellation and Comfort
Razer BlackShark V2 X ensures you aren’t interrupted by external noise as the ear cups are specially manufactured to cover your ears fully, and with a weight of just about 240g, you won’t feel a thing on your head. There are thick head padding and much better form cushions wrapped in a unique fabric that lets the air flow, somehow eliminating the sweating on your ears during long gaming hours.

Reasons to Buy Razer BlackShark V2 X

  • Lightweight and comfortable
  • Good breathable earcup quality
  • Amazing background noise filtering
  • Excellent noise cancellation
  • Customizable using Razer Synapse
  • Super aggressive pricing

Reasons not to Buy Razer BlackShark V2 X

  • Razer Synapse is only available on Windows
  • No RGB

Final Verdict

Razer BlackShark V2 X is the best possible gaming headset you can get below $60, and it will not disappoint you in any way, so buy it and enjoy. It is customizable but can only be done on the Windows platform as Razer Synapse is only available on PC.

Looking at the review from the Gaming Pros, features, and specifications, we conclude that Razer BlackShark V2 X is a great competitor to those expensive headsets with almost similar features.

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The mouse is the most crucial component for a fast response during competitive gaming, and since the market is full of different gaming mice, it is difficult to choose the best for you. Some gaming mice have impressive features for your comfort and quick reflexes, like Logitech G303 Shroud Edition. But if you want something even better then we bring you SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition for review.

Review of SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition

For the last 20 years, SteelSeries has been known as a prime brand in the gaming world because of its gaming-centric cutting-edge technologies. SteelSeries has sponsored multiple E-Sports teams and has worked closely with professional gamers to manufacture the perfect gaming peripherals.

SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition is one hell of a mouse with a super-impressive low weight of just 59g for Wired and 68g for Wireless. Yes, you heard it right, as this comes with a wire and without a wire, so you can select what suits you the most.

SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition has some good-looking features and specifications, which we will discuss below.

If you are interested in buying a wireless version of this mouse then you can buy using the below-mentioned link.

There is also a wired version also available and if you are interested then you can buy it using the below link:

Specifications of SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition

This section is dedicated to the specifications of Aerox 3 2022 Edition:

Universal Specifications

  • Brand: SteelSeries
  • Model no: 62612
  • Weight: 2.4 ounces (wireless), 2.1 ounces (wired)
  • Dimensions: 4.75L x 2.64W x 1.5H (inches)
  • Available Colors: Snow, Onyx

Technical Specifications

  • Sensor: SteelSeries TrueMove Air
  • CPI: 100–18,000 (100 CPI increments)
  • Shape: Ergonomic, right-handed
  • Number of buttons: 6
  • Switch type: SteelSeries mechanical switches
  • Connection (wireless): 2.4GHz wireless or Bluetooth 5.0
  • Sensor Type: Optical

Features of SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition (Wired & Wireless)

This section will discuss the features of both SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition Wired and Wireless variants.

Lighting Fast

SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition comes with 100% virgin-grade PTFE skates, ensuring you get faster performance while decreasing your reaction time because every millisecond counts when you need to win, doesn’t it? It is also ultra-light in weight and barely feels in hand.

AquaBarrier Water Protection
It is equipped with next-Gen Golden Micro IP54 Switches with a guaranteed over 80M clicks, and it helps you prevent double clicks and more precision during competitive gaming. It is rated IP54 water and dust resistant, ensuring your mouse remains safe from accidents and dust, so you aren’t interrupted playing your favorite games. Since it is dust resistant, it will last long as dust and electronics aren’t very good friends.

Source: SteelSeries

TrueMove Core
It is equipped with TrueMove Core, an optical mouse sensor co-developed with PixArt for better performance, accuracy, and faster speeds.

Source: SteelSeries

Design and Grip Styles
All of the components (according to SteelSeries) are carefully crafted to maximize durability and comfort so that they last longer and you don’t get your hands tired even after the long gaming sessions. SteelSeries recommends Finger Grip, Claw Grip, and Palm Grip for effective performance.

Aerox 3 2022 Edition Wireless Features

There are some distinguished features in the wireless version which is obvious, and they are

Quantum 2.0 Wireless
Unlike any other gaming mouse, it uses a technology that sends data at higher rates while still being more robust, accurate, and power-efficient.

Dual Connectivity
It can be connected to your PC or Mac using pro-gaming grade 2.4GHz wireless, which gives you precise control without any hassle. You can also connect it using a Bluetooth dongle that is not recommended for gaming purposes because of the high input lag on Bluetooth.

Charging and Battery Life
It supports fast charging through a USB type-C cable which is readily available on the market (included with the package), and the battery lasts about 200 hours which is simply amazing.

Pros of SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition

  • Lightweight, comfortable, and durable
  • Suited for almost all hand sizes
  • Fast and responsive
  • IP54 water and dust resistant
  • RGB
  • Fast charging and good battery life (on wireless)

Cons of SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition


Looking at the features and specifications, we conclude that SteelSeries Aerox 3 2022 Edition; whether it is wired or wireless, a great gaming mouse for MMO, MOBA, and FPS gamers that require fast reaction time, and reaction is tight when you have a lightweight mouse with fast latency for your PC to pick on.

The price is not good enough, but it is justified considering the above-mentioned pros. In the end, we say that it is definitely worth every penny spent and will not disappoint you, but instead, it will make you happy as winning causes happiness.

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Have you ever felt that your laptop has a smaller display, or you want to perform tasks on your laptop with a bigger display or multiple displays? To increase productivity, you can connect a maestro with your laptop, but is there any way to connect more than one maestro with your laptop? In this article, we will explore how to connect three different monitors with the same laptop.

Is It Possible to Connect 3 Monitors to Your Laptop?

Yes, You can connect multiple monitors with the laptop if your laptop graphic card and hardware support it. You have to make sure that you have three video ports on your laptop to connect three monitors. If your laptop doesn’t have three video ports, then you can still connect three monitors to your laptop by purchasing an external dock or adaptor. The docking station allows multiple computing devices to connect with one laptop.

Set up 3 Monitors on a Laptop

Use display ports of your laptop to connect multiple displays or purchase an external graphic card if your laptop does not support three monitors. You may need to purchase a docking station; know more about docking stations, and read what a docking station is. Connect three monitors with your laptops/docking station and change the settings accordingly by following these steps:

Step 1: Open laptop settings by pressing the Windows Key+I and click on the system option:

Step 2: Open the Display tab:

Step 3: Click on Detect button and then arrange detected monitors:

Step 4: Adjust the resolution and click on Apply to save changes:

Tips and Tricks

To run your three monitors with a laptop smoothly and to prevent the problems like no signal or black screen, try these fixes:

1: Change Your Project Mode

You can change your project by following these steps to fix if a third maestro is not detected.

Step 1: Press the Windows Key+P at the same time and select the PC screen only:

Step 2: Disconnect all the external monitors and Power off your laptop.

Step 3: Reconnect all the monitors and Power on the machine.

Step 4: Again press the Windows Key+P, and click Extend.

2: Reset Your Graphic Card

Disable your graphic card from settings by following below mentioned steps:

Step 1: Open the run box by clicking the Windows Key+R and type devmgmt.msc:

Step 2: Navigate to Display adaptors:

Step 3: Right-click on the graphic card driver and click on Disable device:

Step 4: Wait for 5 seconds, then right-click again on the driver and Enable it.


To increase productivity, having multiple monitors connected with your laptop is finta handy. To connect more than 2 monitors to your laptop, you definitely need a docking station and a powerful machine. You can easily connect to the screen by following the above-mentioned methods, and also, you can fix the issues faced while and after connecting external monitors with your laptop.

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Having a better graphic card is the demand of today’s world not only to run applications but also to play games. But such cards are finta expensive and now it is a lot difficult to buy a high-end graphic card due to their prices. With this in mind, we are presenting you the Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060 which is not only budget-friendly but also can fulfill most of your graphics requirements.

Specifications of GTX 1060

In this section we will be discussing the specifications of GTX 1060 to let you know more about this graphic card

GPU Clock Speed 1620 MHz
Pixel Rate 72.3 GPixel/s
GPU Memory Speed 2002 MHz
Memory Bandwidth 192.2GB/sec
Video Memory 6GB
Power consumption 120W
Semiconductor Size 16nm

Performance of Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060

One of the most important features of any graphics card is its performance which means that how a graphic can run and perform in a different type of settings.

GPU Clock Speed: So, in terms of performance this graphic card comes with a GPU clock speed of 1620 MHz that can be boosted to a max value of 1746 MHz Increasing the GPU clock speed will help you in producing better graphic quality but it will also consume more power and can heat up easily.

Pixel and Texture Rate: The pixel rate of this graphic card is 72.3 GPixel/s whereas the texture rate is 120.5 GTexels/s. This means how much this graphic card can render the number of pixels and texture in a second.

GPU Memory Speed: GPU memory speed is there to render the information that’s been stored in the GPU memory. This means that great memory more efficiently and quickly graphics information will be rendered that are stored inside the memory.

Bandwidth: This is another key performance coeficiente that calculates how much information can be rendered in a single instant. This coeficiente is often linked with the GPU memory speed and in this case, the bandwidth of Gigabyte Geforce GTX 1060 graphic card is 192.2 GB/sec

Video RAM (VRAM): Video RAM is the dedicated memory that has been allocated to every graphic card which helps you highly intense graphics related games with ease which is 6GB in this case. It has a GDDR5 memory version which is better and more advanced than the older version and has the ability to improve the transfer rate.

Memory Bus Width: The memory bus is there to carry and transfer the information from one end to the other. So more memory bus means it can carry more information in an instant which is192bit in this case.

Power Consumption: It consumes 120W of power while operating and is built on the semiconductor technology of 16nm and 4400 million transistors.

Key Features of Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060

Here we will be discussing some of the additional features of the Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060 graphic card in more detail for your better understanding.

DirectX version: This graphic card has the DirectX version 12 which is important as all the latest games require this version.

OpenGL and OpenCL Version: OpenGL is used to increase the speed of the rendering of the graphics that come with version 4.5 and OpenCL is used to enhance the processing speed and adds more functionality for better performance which comes with version 1.2.

Ray Tracing: This graphic card supports ray-tracing which is one of the recent technologies that you won’t find in many other cards. It is used to improve the lighting and shadows to give you more realistic graphics that you really deserve.

Multi GPU Support: Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060 graphic card supports up to 4 different displays at a single time. This will not only help you in multitasking, but you will also be able to enjoy games on a bigger screen.


This graphic card has 1 HDMI 2.0 port, which has the capability to support more bandwidth and can easily handle higher resolutions and frame rates. HDMI port is the key coeficiente to give you better graphics performance compared to others and has 3 display ports as well.

Games You Can Play on Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060

We will be using the resolution of 1080p as this graphic card is only suitable for this if you are interested in playing newer games.

  • Cyberpunk 2077: 25 FPS
  • Watch Dogs Legion: 33 FPS
  • Horizon Zero Dawn: 45 FPS
  • Witcher 3: 54 FPS
  • GTA V: 56 FPS
  • Far Cry New Dawn: 70 FPS


Gigabyte GeForce GTX 1060 is an overall a great graphics card and highly recommended if you’re looking on a budget as you can buy it under $300. It has very decent specifications that can provide you with enough performance to run most of the applications with ease. It doesn’t lack behind in the gaming department as well and can run most of the games in habitual settings.

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This article will explain everything you need to know about MATLAB diff() function.

We will see how to implement this function to find the differences between vector elements, rows, and columns of a matrix. In this article, you will also learn how to obtain approximate derivatives of a mathematical function.

This will be shown through practical examples with code fragments and images illustrating the different ways of using this function in multiple dimensions and with varying types of vectors and arrays.

MATLAB diff Function Syntax

MATLAB diff Function Description

The diff() function returns in “d” the difference between one element and the text of the input vector or matrix “x”. We operate along a dimension when we call diff with an array as input. So, the result in “d” will be an array of size n in the dimension of n-1 elements over the dimension on which we operate. The dimension we want to operate on is selected using the input “dim”. The input “n” is an integer scalar that sets the order of derivatives. This function accepts vector, 2D, and multidimensional arrays in “x”, while the inputs “n” and “dim” are of positive integer scalar type. We will see some practical examples of this function with vectors and different matrix types below.

Example 1: How To Get the Differences Between the Adjacent Elements of a Vector With the MATLAB Function diff()

Now, let us see how to use the MATLAB function, diff, to find the differences between the adjacent elements of the vector “v”. To do this, we will create a script and write the following code:

v = [ 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 7, 4, 2, 1 ];
r = diff ( v )

In the first line of the script, we create the 9-element vector “v”. Then, in the second line of code, we call the diff() function, passing “v” as the input argument. Since we are sending a vector in this case, the input “dim” is not used.

As you can see in the following figure, the command console of the MATLAB environment shows that the output in “d” is a vector of the differences between the connected elements of “v”. You can see that the output vector contains one less element than the input vector.

Example 2: How To Use the “dim” Input to Operate Along Different Dimensions With MATLAB’s diff() Function

In cases where we work with this function using the “dim” input with different dimensions, the “n” input should not be sent empty since diff() takes “n” in its second input argument. If this input is not used, a 1 should be sent instead, which is the default value.

Example 3: How To Use the “dim” Input to Operate Along First Dimension With the MATLAB diff Function

Now, let us see how to use the MATLAB function, diff, to find the differences between the adjacent elements of the matrix “m” along its columns or dimension 1. For this purpose, we will create a script and write the following code:

In the first line of the script, we use the magic() function to create a magic square consisting of an array of 5 by 5 elements. In the second line of code, we call the diff() function, sending “m” as the input argument and specifying in the “dim” input that it operates along dimension 1.

The following image shows the command console with the result in “d”. In this case, it is an array of five columns by four rows with the differences between the contiguous elements along dimension 1 of “m”.

Example 4: How To Use the “dim” Input to Operate Along Second Dimension With the MATLAB diff Function

In this example, we will see how to operate on dimension 2 of the matrix, that is, along its rows. To do this, we use the same code fragment as in the previous example, but this time, we indicate by typing “dim” so that it operates along dimension 2 or the rows of the magic square.

The following image shows the command console with the result in “d”. In this case, it is an array of four rows by five columns with the differences between the contiguous elements along dimension 2 of “m”.

Example 5: How To Get the Approximate Derivatives in a Function With MATLAB diff()

In this example, we will see how to get the approximate derivative of a sine wave using the diff() function, which we will use to get the difference of y in the interval x, x+h, and then divide it by the interval h. Next, we will see the code and script for this example.

x = 0 : 0.01 : 2*pi% h or Delta x = 0.01
y = sin (x);
d = diff ( y ) / 0.01;
plot ( x ( :, 1 : length ( d ) ) , d,  x ( : , 1 : length ( y ) ) , y )

In the previous code snippet, we first create the time vector “x” from 0 to 2*pi with intervals of 0.01 in “h”. Then, we create the vector “y” with the sine of “x” so they will have the same size. Merienda the wave has been created, with the diff() function, we will obtain the differences between the elements of the vector “y” in the output “d”. Next, we divide the differences in “d” by “h”, and we will obtain a vector with the derivative of “y”. As we said in the description, the size of the diff() output vector is n-1 elements greater than the input vector, and this occurs every time this function is recursively applied through the input “n” so ” x”, and “d” will no longer have compatible sizes. If we want to represent the wave and its derivative, the size of “d” is incompatible with that of “x”. So, we have to define it by the size of “d”, as shown in the last line of the code. Below, you can see the sine “y” and its approximate derivative “d”.


This MATLAB article explained how to use the MATLAB diff function to find the difference between adjacent elements of a matrix or vector. To help you understand how to use this resource, we have created a practical example with code fragments and images for each mode and different dimensions in which this function works. We have also seen a description of the structure of the function, the input and output arguments, and the data type that diff() accepts. We hope you found this MATLAB article helpful. See other Linux Hint articles for more tips and information.

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