Eversticky sticky notes for Linux

EverSticky is a simple new Qt sticky notes tool for Linux that synchronizes with Evernote and displays rich text formatting.

The application lets users quickly take notes using post-it note-like windows displayed on their desktop. The notes are automatically saved, and synchronized to Evernote (including free Evernote accounts) at a given interval or on demand.

Eversticky sticky notes

The sticky notes are accompanied by a tray icon from where users can create a new note (new notes can also be created by using the + button from an existing sticky note), force sync to Evernote, bring the notes to the foreground, log out of Evernote, and access the application settings. In the settings you’ll find options like setting the sync interval, check for application updates, and set the tray icon style to light or dark.

The stick notes are quiebro basic, supporting only a few keyboard shortcuts like Ctrl + b to make the selected text bold or Ctrl + i to make the text italic.

However, you can paste rich text and EverSticky will display it. E.g. you can copy a checkbox and paste it into a sticky note, and the checkbox will behave as expected, allowing you to check/uncheck it. Or you can paste an image, but note that you must copy the image itself (for example by selecting the image or a region of an image in GIMP, then copy it), and not the image path. You may also edit the notes in Evernote and EverSticky will display them with all the included formatting.

While not explicitly supporting Wayland, EverSticky does run on Wayland, and it behaves in the same way as on X11. For example, using the Dash to Panel, when clicking the Show Desktop button, all windows are hidden, but the sticky notes remain visible on the desktop (this doesn’t happen when using Ctrl + Shift + D though).

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EverSticky doesn’t come with a built-in option to start automatically on login, but you can add it manually. If your desktop environment / Linux distribution comes with a tool to add startup applications (for example Startup Application in some Ubuntu flavors including GNOME, in KDE Plasma it’s in System Settings -> Startup and Shutdown -> Autostart, etc.), add it from there, using eversticky as the command. Or, on most Linux distributions, you can also add it manually to startup by creating a file called eversticky.desktop in ~/.config/autostart with the following contents:

[Desktop Entry]
Type=Application
Exec=eversticky
Hidden=false
NoDisplay=false
X-GNOME-Autostart-enabled=true
Name=Eversticky

Download EverSticky

The application is available as a DEB package on GitHub (so it can be installed on Debian, Ubuntu, Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, etc., though note that Ubuntu 20.04 / Linux Mint 20 and newer are required), as well as on AUR for Arch Linux / Manjaro users. For other Linux distributions, you’ll need to build it from source (this requires a production Evernote API key).


This article explains how to find all files containing specific text on Linux. For this we’ll use grep, a standard Unix program.

grep is a command-line utility which prints lines that match a given pattern, and should be installed by default.

Let’s start simple. Say you want to search for the word text (case-sensitive!) in all the files in the current directory and its subdirectories. To do this, you need to open the terminal, navigate to the folder where you want to perform the search, and run:

grep -r 'text'

This lists all the files in the current folder and subfolders containing text. This includes strings like texting for example, because it contains our search pattern, text. -r stands for recursive, reading all the files in the directory and its subdirectories. If you require following all symbolic links, use -R instead of -r.

If you only want to list the filenames containing the exact whole word text (as opposed to the default partial word matching), and not things like texting, 123text, and so on, you’d need to append the -w (whole words) command line option, like this:

grep -rw 'text'

If you don’t want to search in the current folder, but in a specific folder, you can specify the path in which grep should look into, by adding it at the end of the command, like this:

grep -rw 'text' /path/to/search/into

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Grep has many options, but below I’ll only list a few that you might find especially useful when trying to find all files containing specific text on Linux (besides those already mentioned above):

  • -n shows the line numbers. When a match is found, besides the file path in which it was found, grep will also display the line number on which the pattern was found
  • -i performs the search case-insensitive (it’s case-sensitive by default). Depending on the number of files, this can slow down the search, so take this into consideration when using it
  • --include=GLOB / --exclude=GLOB includes or excludes certain files
  • --exclude-dir=GLOB is used to exclude folders from being searched

Let’s take a look at an example which combines these command line flags. Let’s say you want to find all files containing the case-insensitive (-i) text in the ~/Documents folder and its subfolders except for the Private and Personal subfolders (--exclude-dir), and only search in the files that have the .txt and .js extensions (--include). Also, you want to show the line numbers (-n), search recursively and also follow all symbolic links (-R). In that case, the command you’d need to use would be (this is a single command):

grep -Rni --exclude-dir={Private,Personal} --include={*.txt,*.js} 'text' ~/Documents

Example output:

/home/logix/Documents/test/folder/file1.js:7:text
/home/logix/Documents/test/folder/file2.txt:7:text

Here, 7 is the line number on which the pattern we’ve searched for (text) was found.

For more information and advanced usage, see the grep man page.

You may also want to check out ripgrep, a line-oriented search tool that recursively searches the current directory for a regex pattern that comes with some extra features, and is very fast.

You  might also like: rga: Search Text In PDF, Ebooks, Office Documents, Archives And More (ripgrep Wrapper) and How To Find Files Modified In The Last N Days Or Minutes Using find


TLP is a command line advanced Linux power management tool that helps save laptop battery power. It’s designed to install and forget about it, TLP taking care of everything automatically. TLP is highly configurable though, so you can tweak it to suit your specific needs, either to manual editing of its configuration file (/etc/tlp.conf), or by using TLPUI, a third-party GUI for TLP.

With version 1.4, TLP has added support for setting start and/or stop charge battery thresholds for some laptops: ASUS, Huawei MateBooks, LG Gram, Lenovo (now for non-Thinkpads too; Thinkpads have been supported for a while) and Samsung. This article explains how to use this TLP feature to set start and/or stop thresholds in case you own a supported laptop.

Limiting the battery charge level helps prolong battery lifespan. By setting a battery stop charge threshold, you limit the maximum charge level to below 100%. Some laptops also supports setting a battery start charge threshold, which prevents the charging process from continuing as soon as the charger is connected, after a short discharge.

According to the TLP 1.4.0 release notes, the following laptops / battery charge thresholds are supported:

  • ASUS laptops: stop threshold
  • Huawei MateBooks: start and stop threshold
  • LG Gram laptops: stop threshold at 80% aka «battery care limit»
  • Lenovo (non-ThinkPads) laptops: stop threshold at 60% aka «battery conservation mode»
  • Samsung laptops: stop threshold at 80% aka «battery life extender»

TLP already had support for Thinkpad start and stop charging thresholds. It’s also important to note that not all the laptop brands mentioned above support setting a charge threshold (you’ll also need to be using a fairly recent kernel). To see if your laptop supports this, see the prerequisites section below.

For ASUS laptops, you can also easily set charging thresholds using a command line tool called bat.

Prerequisites

Before proceeding, you’ll obviously need to have TLP 1.4.0 or newer installed on your system. See this page for installing TLP on various Linux distributions, including Arch Linux, Debian / Ubuntu (and Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, etc.), Fedora, openSUSE, etc.

To see if your ASUS, Huawei MateBooks, LG Gram, Lenovo or Samsung laptop supports start and/or stop charge battery thresholds (with TLP >= 1.4.0 installed), run:

sudo tlp-stat -b

This command displays various battery information for your laptop, including if it supports charge start and/or stop thresholds. 

For example, this is the output of this command on my ASUS Zenbook:

--- TLP 1.4.0 --------------------------------------------

+++ Battery Care
Plugin: asus
Supported features: charge threshold
Driver usage:
* natacpi (asus_wmi) = active (charge threshold)
Parameter value range:
* STOP_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0/1: 0(off)..100(default)
...........................................

As you can see from this output, the laptop supports stop charge thresholds (STOP_CHARGE_THRESH), which can have a value between 0 and 100 (with 0 meaning to disable this feature).

It’s also worth noting that some ASUS laptops silently ignore charge thresholds other than 40, 60 or 80, so if setting a different value doesn’t work for you, try one of these 3 values.

Now that we know the laptop supports setting a battery stop charge threshold and the supported values, we can proceed to set battery charge thresholds.

How to set battery charge thresholds for ASUS, Huawei MateBooks, LG Gram, Lenovo and Samsung laptops on Linux using TLP

There are 2 ways of setting a battery charging threshold for your laptop running TLP. Either using TLPUI, a graphical user interface for TLP, or by manually editing the TLP configuration file.

Using TLPUI

If you don’t already have TLPUI installed, see its installaton page. For Ubuntu and Ubuntu-based Linux distributions (Pop!_OS, Linux Mint, etc., you can install it from the Linux Uprising Apps PPA).

In TLPUI, click on ThinkPad Battery in the sidebar. This is called like that because until version 1.4, TLP supported setting battery charge thresholds only for ThinkPads, and I guess the TLPUI developer forgot to change it. But despite its name, this is also for some ASUS, Huawei MateBooks, LG Gram, non-ThinkPad Lenovo and Samsung laptops.

TLPUI battery charge thresholds

There you can set charge thresholds for the main battery (BAT0 – this is for the main battery, even if the laptop battery is called BAT1, BATT, etc.) and/or for the auxiliary/Ultrabay battery (BAT1).

It’s important to note that you must set both a start and a stop charge battery threshold. If your laptop doesn’t support start thresholds (only Huawei MateBooks and Lenovo ThinkPads support this), or you don’t want to set a start charge battery threshold, enable (check the box next to it) the start charge threshold option but set it to 0 (disabled).

Make sure to only use a charge battery threshold value supported by your laptop, as reported by the sudo tlp-stat -b command.

Remember to click the Save button when you’re done to save the new configuration and apply it.

Editing the TLP configuration file

If you don’t use TLPUI, you can set charging thresholds for your ASUS, Huawei MateBooks, LG Gram, Lenovo and Samsung laptops on Linux by editing the TLP configuration file.

Start by opening /etc/tlp.conf as root with a text editor. Scroll down to START_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT. There’s you’ll find start and stop charge threshold settings for BAT0 and BAT1. BAT0 is the main battery, even if your laptop’s battery has a different name (e.g. BAT1, BATT, etc.), and BAT1 is for the auxiliary/Ultrabay battery.

Uncomment (remove the # symbol from the beginning of the line) for both START_CHARGE_THRESH_BATx and STOP_CHARGE_THRESH_BATx for the battery you want to enable charge thresholds for (BAT0 or BAT1), then set their values to the start/stop values you want to use. 

Important:

  • make sure the battery charge thresholds values you set are supported by your laptop (as reported by sudo tlp-stat -b)
  • if your laptop doesn’t support setting a battery start charge threshold, or you don’t want to use a start charge threshold, set the START_CHARGE_THRESH_BATx value to 0 (which disables it)

When you’re done setting the battery charge thresholds, run the following command to validate the parameters and configuration, and report any errors:

sudo tlp setcharge

Example output from my ASUS Zenbook:

Setting temporary charge threshold for BAT0:
  stop =  60 (no change)


This post is authored by Hayden Blauzvern and originally appeared on Sigstore’s blog. Sigstore is a new standard for signing, verifying, and protecting software. It is a project of the Linux Foundation. 

Developers, package maintainers, and enterprises that would like to sigstore logo adopt Sigstore may already sign published artifacts. Signers may have existing procedures to securely store and use signing keys. Sigstore can be used to sign artifacts with existing self-managed, long-lived signing keys. Sigstore provides a simple user experience for signing, verification, and generating structured signature metadata for artifacts and container signatures. Sigstore also offers a community-operated, free-to-use transparency log for auditing signature generation.

Sigstore additionally has the ability to use code signing certificates with short-lived signing keys bound to OpenID Connect identities. This signing approach offers simplicity due to the lack of key management; however, this may be too drastic of a change for enterprises that have existing infrastructure for signing. This blog post outlines strategies to ease adoption of Sigstore while still using existing signing approaches.

Signing with self-managed, long-lived keys

Developers that maintain their own signing keys but want to migrate to Sigstore can first switch to using Cosign to generate a signature over an artifact. Cosign supports importing an existing RSA, ECDSA, or ED25519 PEM-encoded PKCS#1 or PKCS#8 key with cosign import-key-pair –key key.pem, and can sign and verify with cosign sign-blob –key cosign.key artifact-path and cosign verify-blob –key cosign.pub artifact-path.

Benefits

  • Developers can get accustomed to Sigstore tooling to sign and verify artifacts.
  • Sigstore tooling can be integrated into CI/CD pipelines.
  • For signing containers, signature metadata is published with the OCI image in an OCI registry.

Signing with self-managed keys with auditability

While maintaining their own signing keys, developers can increase auditability of signing events by publishing signatures to the Sigstore transparency log, Rekor. This allows developers to audit when signatures are generated for artifacts they maintain, and also instructor when their signing key is used to create a signature.

Developers can upload a signature to the transparency log during signing with COSIGN_EXPERIMENTAL=1 cosign sign-blob –key cosign.key artifact-path. If developers would like to use their own signing infrastructure while still publishing to a transparency log, developers can use the Rekor CLI or API. To upload an artifact and cryptographically verify its inclusion in the log using the Rekor CLI:

rekor-cli upload --rekor_server https://rekor.sigstore.dev 
  --signature  
  --public-key  
  --artifact <url_to_artifact|local_path></url_to_artifact|local_path>rekor-cli verify --rekor_server https://rekor.sigstore.dev 
  --signature  
  --public-key  
  --artifact <url_to_artifact|local_path></url_to_artifact|local_path>

In addition to PEM-encoded certificates and public keys, Sigstore supports uploading many different key formats, including PGP, Minisign, SSH, PKCS#7, and TUF. When uploading using the Rekor CLI, specify the –pki-format flag. For example, to upload an artifact signed with a PGP key:

gpg --armor -u user@example.com --output signature.asc --detach-sig package.tar.gzgpg --export --armor "user@example.com" > public.keyrekor-cli upload --rekor_server https://rekor.sigstore.dev 
  --signature signature.asc 
  --public-key public.key 
  --pki-format=pgp 
  --artifact package.tar.gz

Benefits

  • Developers begin to publish signing events for auditability.
  • Artifact consumers can create a verification policy that requires a signature be published to a transparency log.

Self-managed keys in identity-based code signing certificate with auditability

When requesting a code signing certificate from the Sigstore certificate authority Fulcio, Fulcio binds an OpenID Connect identity to a key, allowing for a verification policy based on identity rather than a key. Developers can request a code signing certificate from Fulcio with a self-managed long-lived key, sign an artifact with Cosign, and upload the artifact signature to the transparency log.

However, artifact consumers can still fail-open with verification (allow the artifact, while logging the failure) if they do not want to take a hard dependency on Sigstore (require that Sigstore services be used for signature generation). A developer can use their self-managed key to generate a signature. A verifier can simply extract the verification key from the certificate without verification of the certificate’s signature. (Note that verification can occur offline, since inclusion in a transparency log can be verified using a persisted signed bundle from Rekor and code signing certificates can be verified with the CA root certificate. See Cosign’s verification code for an example of verifying the Rekor bundle.)

Merienda a consumer takes a hard dependency on Sigstore, a CI/CD pipeline can move to fail-closed (forbid the artifact if verification fails).

Benefits

  • A stronger verification policy that enforces both the presence of the signature in a transparency log and the identity of the signer.
  • Verification policies can be enforced fail-closed.

Identity-based (“keyless”) signing

This final step is added for completeness. Signing is done using code signing certificates, and signatures must be published to a transparency log for verification. With identity-based signing, fail-closed is the only option, since Sigstore services must be online to retrieve code signing certificates and append entries to the transparency log. Developers will no longer need to maintain signing keys.

Conclusion

The Sigstore tooling and infrastructure can be used as a whole or modularly. Each separate integration can help to improve the security of artifact distribution while allowing for incremental updates and verifying each step of the integration.



Source link


Pinta image editor

Pinta, a free and open-source drawing and image editing program, has been updated to version 1.7.1, receiving a few new minor features / improvements, as well as quiebro a few bug fixes.

Pinta is a Gtk# clone of the Paint.Net 3.0 Microsoft Windows application, which makes it easy to draw and manipulate images on Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows and *BSD.

Pinta features include:

  • Tools to draw freehand, lines, rectangles, ellipses, etc.
  • Over 35 adjustments and effects for tweaking the images, like oil painting, ink sketch, pixelate, twist, red eye removal, glow, sharpen, emboss, auto-level, sepia, etc.
  • Built-in add-on manager which comes with some Pinta repositories for installing extras like effects, brushes, and so on
  • Multiple layers
  • Full undo history
  • Customizable user interface with docked or floating windows

After more than a year since the Pinta 1.7 release, Pinta 1.7.1 comes as not only a bug fix release, but it also includes a few minor features / enhancements. This is likely the last GTK2-based Pinta release because, according to the release notes, «the GTK3 / .NET 6 version is nearly ready«.

For the GTK3 version (Pitna 1.8.0) to be released, there are a few bugs that need fixing. You can find the Pinta 1.8 milestone information by visiting this page.

Changes in Pinta 1.7.1 include:

  • The canvas can now be scrolled horizontally by holding Shift while using the mouse wheel
  • The primary and secondary palette colors can now be swapped by pressing X
  • Added a more user-friendly dialog when attempting to open an unsupported file format
  • Zooming in and out can now be done without pressing the Ctrl key
  • Arrow keys can be used to move by a single pixel in the Move Selected Pixels and Move Selection tools
  • Shift can now be used to constrain to a uniform scale when scaling using the Move Selected Pixels tool
  • The About dialog now allows easily copying the version information to the clipboard for use when reporting bugs
  • Fixed inconsistent behavior when switching between tools that share the same shortcut, such as the selection tools
  • Improved error messages when the user does not have read or write permissions for a file
  • Tooltips for tabs now show the full file path instead of only the file name
  • Improved handling of memory allocation failures for large images
  • Bug fixes

If you want to consult the complete changelog, you can find it on GitHub.

Download Pinta

There are Pinta binaries available for download for Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux. At the time I’m writing this, there are Linux packages available for Ubuntu (PPA), and you can also install it from the Snap Store on any Linux distribution that supports it. The Flathub package has not yet been updated. Links for all of these are available on the Pinta downloads page linked above.

On Arch Linux, Pinta is already available in the official Community repository.

 

CFS Zen Tweaks is a bash script and systemd service that tweak the Linux CPU scheduler for better desktop responsiveness when under heavy CPU utilization.

The default kernel settings are not tweaked for desktop usage, with high throughput being prioritized over latency, notes the CFS Zen Tweaks author. This results in a less responsive desktop under heavy CPU load. Using CFS Zen Tweaks, you should notice an improved desktop responsiveness – for example, its author mentions that before using this, YouTube would lag while compiling code, and that’s no longer the case using the CFS Zen tweaks.

The CFS Zen Tweaks project adjusts the default kernel CPU scheduler (CFS or Completely Fair Scheduler) for better desktop responsiveness. The CFS CPU scheduler settings come from Linux ZEN kernel, which was created to provide a better Linux kernel for everyday systems.

Note that only the CFS CPU scheduler tweaks are used from the ZEN kernel, while this custom kernel also has other tweaks.

The advantage of using these tweaks over installing a custom kernel is that you get to keep your Linux distribution’s official kernel packages (so you get official updates and there’s no risk of breaking stuff).

It’s important to note though, that using these tweaks will increase the battery drain on laptops, due to more context switches.

 

Download CFS Zen Tweaks

 

CFS Zen Tweaks is packaged as a DEB (for Debian, Ubuntu, Linux Mint, Pop!_OS, etc.), RPM (Fedora), and it’s also available on AUR for Arch Linux / Manjaro users. If you just want the script and systemd service, visit the project GitHub repository page. To use it, you’ll need bash, gawk, and systemd to apply the settings on boot (these will be installed as dependencies if you’re using the prebuilt packages).

After installing the package, enable the tweaks to be applied on boot (and apply them right now) by using:

systemctl enable --now set-cfs-tweaks.service

via Reddit; Tux image via Wikipedia


Gnome Next Meeting Applet Google Calendar

Gnome Next Meeting Applet is an AppIndicator that shows your next Google Calendar meetings / events in a menu on the panel. It also shows your next Google Calendar event title and remaining time directly on the panel, so you can quickly find out when your next event / meeting is due.

The applet makes use of Gnome Online Accounts to grab your Google Calendar info, and has useful features like the ability to automatically detect video conference URLs (it supports Google Meet, Teleobjetivo and Bluejeans), allowing you to click on a meeting to join it. The application also shows the document links attached to the current meeting.

Other features include the ability to change the icon 5 minutes before and after a meeting, along with various configuration options.

Besides displaying the next calendar events, the AppIndicator has only one option: automóvil start on boot. However, you can configure much more settings, but not from the AppIndicator. All other configuration options are available in the configuration file: ~/.config/gnome-next-meeting-applet/config.yaml. There you can change the default icon, set the maximum number of events to show, restrict the applet to only show events from a particular calendar, and more. You can find all the configuration options here.

The applet is inspired by the Gnome Next Meeting Argos script and macOS Next Meeting.

Gnome Next Meeting Applet running on Xfce desktop

Despite Gnome being in its name, this could also work on other desktop environments. Outside of Gnome, I’ve only tested it on Xfce, and it works, with the only difference to it running on Gnome being that on Xfce it only shows an icon in the tray (screenshot above), without displaying any text on the panel (on Gnome it displays the time remaining to the next meeting and the meeting title). If you’re not using Gnome though, you’ll need to install Gnome Online Accounts (E.g. on Debian / Ubuntu, the package is called gnome-online-accounts) to be able to add your Google account.

Download Gnome Next Meeting Applet

Gnome Next Meeting Applet is available in a Copr repository for Fedora, PPA for Ubuntu / Linux Mint / Pop!_OS (you can also visit the PPA page and grab the DEB directly from there), and on AUR for Arch Linux / Manjaro. To use it on Gnome you’ll need the AppIndicator Support extension or else it won’t show up on your Gnome Shell panel (this is installed by default on Ubuntu).

To get your Google Calendar events to show up in Gnome Next Meeting Applet, add your Google account to Gnome Online Accounts (Settings -> Online Accounts, or search for Online Accounts in the menu).


how to run a command after the previous one has finished on Linux

This article explains how to run a command after the previous command has finished running. Using this, you can run not just 2 commands, but any number of commands, after the previous one has finished. This will work with Sh, Bash, Zsh and other shells.

You can run a command after the previous one has finished, depending on the previous command’s exit status (if it failed or not) or regardless of this. So there are 3 possible situations:

  • run a command if the previous command exited successfully,
  • run a command if the previous command failed (if it has an exit status other than 0), or
  • run a command regardless of the exit status of the previous command (it doesn’t matter if it failed or not)

Let’s take a look at each of these cases below.

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To run multiple commands successively (wait for the previous one to finish) only if the previous command exited successfully, use the && operator between the commands. For example (you can have any number of commands):

command1 && command2

If you don’t care about the exit status of the previous command, and you just want to run a command after the previous one has finished, use the ; separator. Example (you can have any number of commands):

command1; command2; command3

What if you want to run a command after the previous one has finished running, but only if this previous command has failed (if it returns an exit status other than 0). In that case, use the || separator. For example (merienda again, you can have any number of commands):

command1 || command2

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You can also mix these operators. In that case, you can group the commands using { and }. For this to work, you need to make sure you add a semicolon (;) before } and a space after {. For example:

command1 || { command2; command3; }

In this example:

  • run command1 and wait for it to finish
  • if command1 fails, proceed to the next commands (||):
    • run command2 and wait for it to finish
    • regardless of command2‘s exit status, run command3 (;)

Another example:

{ command1 && command2; }; { command3 && command4; }

In this example:

  • run command1 and wait for it to finish
  • if command1 is successful, run command2 and wait for it to finish (&&)
  • regardless if command2 was successful or not, or if it even ran or not, run command3 and wait for it to finish (the ; after the first })
  • if command3 is successful, run command4 (&&)

As a reminder, the ; before each } is required when using {}, and does not affect the way the commands are run.

[[Edit]] The article initially used parentheses (()) for mixing the operators; but that has some drawbacks (like running the commands in a subshell) compared to using braces ({}), as pointed out by Laurent in a comment below. So I have updated the article to use {} for this.

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Despite being around for two decades and being one of the most popular Linux server distributions, the pricing of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), sometimes called Red Hat Linux, is still a common source of confusion, both among its existing users and those who are just thinking about making the switch.”

Red Hat Enterprise Linux and its Relationship With Fedora

RHEL was first released in 2000, after the discontinuation of Red Hat Linux. With the new version came a new pricing model and also Fedora Linux, a free, community-supported Linux distribution that functions as the upstream source of RHEL.

RHEL uses a much more conservative release cycle than Fedora. New features are typically first made available to Fedora users and don’t make it to RHEL until they are polished. While both RHEL and Fedora can be used for commercial purposes, only RHEL receives commercial support.

“Developers and Linux enthusiasts flock to Fedora for the latest features and the opportunity to directly collaborate with Red Hat engineering,” explains Red Hat on its website. “Banks, stock exchanges, hospitals, and businesses that run the world’s leading websites choose Red Hat Enterprise Linux for the platform’s performance, stability, and security, which lets them implement mature and well-organized IT infrastructures across the enterprise.”

Variants of Red Hat Enterprise Linux

RHEL is available in multiple variants, each targeting a different group of users, offering a unique assortment of features, and including a certain level of customer support.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server: Deployable on a physical system, in the cloud, or as a guest on the most widely available hypervisors, Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server is an easy-to-administer, simple-to-control operating system with multiple subscription options and several optional add-ons.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Aparente Datacenters: This variant of RHEL is designed to support the deployment of unlimited guests in dense virtualized environments on Microsoft HyperV, VMware, Red Hat Virtualization, Openshift Virtualization, and other supported hypervisors.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation: Including all the capabilities and apps from Red Hat Enterprise Linux Desktop, plus development tools for provisioning and administration, Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation targets advanced Linux users working on more powerful systems, such as graphic designers, animators, and scientists.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Suite: Intended for development purposes only, Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Suite is a self-supported Linux distribution and includes all Red Hat Enterprise Linux Add-Ons, Red Hat Software Collections, and the Red Hat Developer Toolset.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Workstation: Designed specifically to meet the needs of software developers, Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Workstation includes all the features of Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Suite with unlimited incident reports and 2-business-day or 4-business-hour responses.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for IBM Power Little Endian: With this version of RHEL, it’s possible to run the distribution with support for POWER8 on IBM Power Systems based on little-endian—ideal for scaling out big data and supporting cloud deployments.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Pricing

Now that we introduced the dominant variants of RHEL, it’s time to take a closer look at their pricing:

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server subscriptions are split into three tiers. As its name suggests, the Self-Support tier doesn’t include any customer support. For this reason alone, it’s not intended for use in production environments. Another reason for not deploying it in production is the lack of virtualization support.

The Standard tier includes customer support provided via web and phone during standard business hours for all support cases. Weekends and almacén public holidays are excluded.

Finally, the Premium tier includes around-the-clock support for severity 1 and 2 cases and standard customer support for severity 3 and 4 cases (weekends and almacén public holidays not included).

Subscription type Price
Self-Support (1 year) $349
Standard (1 year) $799
Premium (1 year) $1,299

Available add-ons:

  • Smart Management (from $699)
  • High Availability ($399)
  • Resilient Storage ($799)
  • Extended Update Support ($249)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Aparente Datacenters

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for Aparente Datacenters doesn’t offer a self-supported subscription plan. Instead, customers can choose between only Standard and Premium subscription tiers.

Subscription type Price
Standard (1 year) $2,499
Premium (1 year) $3,999

Available add-ons:

  • Smart Management (from $1,225)
  • High Availability ($1,245)
  • Resilient Storage ($2,495)
  • Extended Update Support ($775)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation

Premium customer support isn’t available for Red Hat Enterprise Linux Workstation. Regardless of if you go the Self-Supported route or choose to purchase Standard customer support, your subscription will always include one Physical entitlement for the bare metal workstation and one guest entitlement for a potencial machine running on the same workstation.

Subscription type
Self-support (1 year)
Standard (1 year)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Suite

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Suite is marketed as a self-supported Linux distribution, so there’s no option to purchase Standard or Premium customer support for it from Red Hat.

Subscription type
Self-support (1 year)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Workstation

Red Hat Enterprise Linux Developer Workstation is for developers who want customer support, and there are two subscription tiers to choose from. The more affordable one includes an unlimited number of incidents and a 2-business-day response service level agreement, while the more expensive one includes an unlimited number of incidents and a 4-business-hour response service level agreement.

Subscription type
Professional (1 year)
Enterprise (1 year)

Red Hat Enterprise Linux for IBM Power Little Endian

This RHEL subscription is available either with Standard customer support (all support cases are covered during standard business hours) or Premium customer support (severity 1 and 2 cases are covered 24×7, while severity 3 and 4 cases are covered only during standard business hours).

Subscription type
Standard (1 year)
Premium (1 year)

Choosing the Right RHEL Subscription

The Red Hat subscription packaging model allows customers to select the right subscription for their needs, stack subscriptions to streamline purchasing, and move subscriptions from physical to potencial to cloud. For physical hardware deployments, subscriptions are based on the number of socket pairs in the systems used. For potencial deployments, subscriptions are based on the number of potencial instance pairs used.

Let’s say you want to deploy Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server on a 2-socket server. In that case, you need to purchase a single subscription, which starts at $349. The same goes for 2 physical servers with 1 socket each.

However, 2 physical servers with 2 sockets each require 2 subscriptions ($698 in total with self-support), 4 physical servers with 2 sockets each require 4 subscriptions ($1,396 in total with self-support), and so on.

The self-support subscription includes access to software updates, the Red Hat Knowledgebase, and technical content on the Red Hat Customer Portal. It does not include phone or web support from Red Hat.

The standard subscription adds unlimited web and phone requests during standard business hours with a response time of one hour for problems that severely impact the use of the software in a production environment (Severity 1) and 2 hours for problems in which the software is functioning, but its use in a production environment is severely reduced (Severity 2).

The premium subscription introduces 24×7 coverage for Severity 1 and Severity 2 problems, making it great for mission-critical workloads.

Conclusion

With so many variants of Red Hat Enterprise Linux to choose from, it’s no wonder that even those who have been with this popular Linux distribution are often not sure just how much they should expect to pay. We hope that this article has made things clearer and helped you unravel Red Hat’s pricing structure.



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Responsively app Linux

Responsively App is a free and open source dev tool for responsive web development, available for Linux, Microsoft Windows and macOS. It’s a modified browser that uses Electron, which shows a web app on multiple devices at the same time and in a single window with mirrored user interactions, DevTools, and more.

The application had its first public release back in March 2020, and is already finta popular, but I’ve only recently stumbled upon it and thought I’d share it with you.

Main Responsively App features:

  • Mirrored user-interactions across all devices: an action (like click, scroll, etc.) performed on one device is mirrored on all other devices
  • Customizable preview layout
  • A single element inspector for all devices in preview
  • 30+ built-in device profiles with option to add custom devices (including a special responsive mode device for freely resizing a screen)
  • One-click screenshot all your devices (full page screenshots of all devices or just a single device)
  • Utilitario-reload for all devices in real-time for every HTML / CSS / JS save

The application also includes a live CSS editor, touch mode, design mode that allows users to edit HTML directly without dev tools, network speed emulation options, teleobjetivo, disable SSL validation, and support for various protocols (file://, ftp://, etc.), and much, much more.

Using Responsively App, you also get network proxy support, light and dark themes and shortcut keys.

You might like: How To Enable Hardware Accelerated Video Decode In Google Chrome, Brave, Vivaldi And Opera Browsers On Debian, Ubuntu Or Linux Mint

There are also optional browser extensions (for Chrome, Firefox and Edge) that you can use to easily send links from your web browser to Responsively App to preview instantly.

In the future, the plan is to add features like built-in Lighthouse metrics, browser tabs and a screenshot gallery, among many other improvements and tweaks.

It’s also worth noting that while there are finta a few alternatives to Responsively App, like Polypane or Sizzy, most of them are closed source / paid. From what I could find, Responsively App is the only one that’s free and open source, thought I may have missed some app.

As for Linux packages, Responsively App is packaged as an RPM for Fedora, openSUSE, etc., and as an AppImage, which should work on most Linux distributions.

You might also like: Save Web Pages As Single HTML Files For Offline Use With Monolith (Console)

Download Responsively App

To use the AppImage on Linux, right-click it, choose Properties and under Permissions, look for an option to allow executing the file as a program (this varies between file managers). Then to launch it, simply double-click the .AppImage file.