Archive d’étiquettes pour : Card

When using WooCommerce, it’s important to get the Payment Gateways right. In this updated 2022 video, I’ll show you why I install and set up the WooCommerce Payments before Stripe or PayPal and why you need a Business PayPal account.

WooCommerce Payments and Stripe and PayPal Gateway Set-up for 2022 | Business PayPal | Credit Card

Equipment Used:
Softbox Lighting Kit (to focus main light onto me in a dark room):

Soundproof Panels (to provide a dark setting, and prevent sound bounce):

3m Ethernet Cat 7 Cable (to maximise the Internet Connection as the room is upstairs):

Anker 6 in 1 Adaptor (for the Macbook Air to increase USB-C, USB-A, HDMI, Ethernet Ports):

USB-C to Lightning Port Cable (from my iPhone to my Macbook Air):

Powerline Adaptor (boosts internet connection from downstairs 380mbs to the upstairs room 120mbs):

Floodlights (positioned to glow onto the walls):

LED Light stands (either side of me):

Fifine Dynamic Microphone:

Floating Shelves:

Hanging Pendant Light Holders:

Vintage Light Bulbs:

WooCommerce Payments and Stripe and PayPal Gateway Set-up for 2022 | Business PayPal | Credit Card

Music used:
Track: Will You Be Mine (Remix)
Free download:
Music provided by Audio Library Plus

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The SD is the backbone of your Raspberry Pi device because, without it, you won’t be able to use an operating system on your device. The reason is that most operating systems don’t support USB boot on your Raspberry Pi device. Thus, having a good-speed SD card is necessary for the users to enjoy a smooth desktop environment. If you somehow purchase an SD card for your Raspberry Pi device and you don’t have information about whether the card is good enough for a smooth desktop experience, you should need to perform an SD card test.

This article provides a way to determine your Raspberry Pi card speed, as this will help you continue with the current SD card or purchase a new one for your device.

Raspberry Pi SD Card Speed Test

There are two simple methods through which you can perform a speed test for your Raspberry Pi SD card:

  1. SD Card Speed Test Using Agnostics
  2. SD Card Speed Test Using the dd Command

The details of both these methods are discussed as below.

1: SD Card Speed Test Using Agnostics

One of the simplest ways to perform SD card speed test is using the Agnostics tool, which is pre-installed on your Raspberry Pi device. However, if you don’t have then you can install it anytime using the following command:

$ sudo apt install agnostics -y

To open this tool, head to the Raspberry Pi menu, and in the “Accessories” option, click on the “Raspberry Pi Diagnostics”.

This will open up the following screen on your Raspberry Pi desktop, where you will be able to run a SD card speed test merienda you click on the “Run Tests” button.

If you find the output result as PASS, it means that your SD card is fast enough to provide you with a smooth desktop experience and if it outputs the result as FAIL, then you should need to replace your SD card as soon as possible.

2: SD Card Speed Test Using the dd Command

You can also find detailed information about your SD card speed test using the dd command, which provides information related to your SD card write and read speed performance.

To find out the SD card write speed performance, we are creating 100MB of free storage space and five blocks of 20MB each. You can change this preference according to your choice as greater storage space provides better results but requires more time. With this information, you can apply the following command in your Raspberry Pi terminal to find out the write speed performance of your SD card:

$ dd if=/dev/zero of=./speedTestFile bs=20M count=5 oflag=direct

From the above command, “if” and “of” are used for reading and writing from a source file to destination file respectively. While the “/dev/zero” is a built-in special Linux file that is used to fill the memory of any kind where all bits are set to zero. This file is mostly utilized in the reading and writing process. The result in the last row shows the time spent and promedio speed of the writing operation on your SD card.

To find out the read speed information of your SD card, issue the following command in the terminal:

$ dd if=./speedTestFile of=/dev/zero bs=20M count=5 oflag=dsync

From the above command, we are reading the data from the previously generated source file, so in that case, we use the “if” command to read from the source file and uses the oflag as dysnc instead of direct. While the output in the last row shows the time spent and promedio speed of the reading operation on your SD card, which should always be greater than the write speed.


Raspberry Pi SD card speed test is an important test that every user must perform to keep a check on the card performance. The easiest way to perform an SD card speed test is to use the Raspberry Pi Diagnostics from the Raspberry Pi menu, where you will be able to find out whether your SD card can provide you with adequate performance or not. You can also find out the write and read speed of your SD card using the dd command, which is crucial if you have proper knowledge of SD card reading and writing speed.

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The Zotac company came into existence in 2006 and after that, they kept on consistently improving their products, which can now easily rival any other company such as AMD. They have diversified their products into such areas as gaming and mini PCs, SSDs, and other accessories, but they are most famous for making graphics cards such as the Zotac 1660 which is top of a line graphics card.

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Key Feature of Zotac 1660 Graphic Card

Let me give you a quick overview of the key features that this graphic card offers for better understanding:

Review of Zotac 1660 Graphic Card

Now we are going to discuss the important aspects of this graphic card in more detail.

Semiconductor Size

It comes with a semiconductor size of 12 nm that has 6600 million transistors that is far more compared to some of the new coming graphic cards. It consumes 120 watt of power to fully operate whereas its height and width is 111.15 mm and 215.9 mm respectively.

Clock Speed:

GPU clock speed determines how fast can the graphics render and load which means that greater the clock speed means greater the loading speed. So, the GPU clock speed of the Zotac 1660 graphic is 1530 MHz which should be sufficient to load most of the graphic intensive tasks in no time without any delay that can be further enhanced up to 1785 MHz but this can increase the heating issue. Other than that the texture rate of the graphic card is 157.1 Gtexels/s,GTexels/s which determines how much graphics can be rendered in a second.

Memory speed and Bandwidth

Memory speed is another crucial divisor that is necessary to show how quickly it can store the required information whereas the bandwidth shows the amount of data that can be transferred per second. It is usually there to control the processing speed that is needed to be rendered, and you will see a major difference in high graphics games. So, in this case memory speed is 2001MHz whereas the maximum memory bandwidth is 192.1GB/sec.

Memory Bus

The memory bus expands the number of pathways for transmitting data to the endpoint which means that as memory capacity increases, more pathways and information can be sent in less time. As a result, the memory bus value for this graphic card is 192bits.

Advance Features

It supports the most recent versions of DirectX and OpenGL, which are required to run current games, and it also supports multi-display technology, which allows you to connect several monitors. This will provide a more immersive experience because the screen will be broader, which will dramatically improve your gaming. Another great feature is that it supports ray tracing which is used to improve the lightning quality within the game. It comes with 1 HDMI port and 1 newer more advanced HDMI port 2.0 and other than that it has 3 display output ports as well.

Games that You can Play on ZOTAC 1660 Ti Graphic Card

Below are the games that can run on this graphics card with high settings:

Counter Strike Go – 300 FPS High Settings

The Witcher 3 – 90 FPS High Settings

Watch Dogs 2 – 65 FPS High Settings

Grand Theft Utilitario V – 65 FPS High Settings

Far Cry 5 – 80 FPS High Settings


Zotac has been releasing graphics cards for years, but it has only recently stepped up to releasing more specific and finely tuned ones suited to gamers’ tastes. One of their famous graphic cards is the Zotac 1660 graphic card, which can play most of the new games with ease having a decent frame rate of 40 to 60.

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Graphic card of laptop is one of the main components that provides a better display quality. If you are an absolute fanatic about graphics, then this might surprise you that now you can upgrade your graphic card of Alienware laptop. However, not all the models have the option of upgrading the graphics card so, this guide has given the models that have this feature and what are the options if you want to upgrade the graphics card of your Alienware laptop.

Upgrading the Alienware Laptop Graphics Card

There are two following ways by which one can upgrade the GPU of Alienware laptops:

  • Upgrading the Alienware laptop graphic card using external graphics card
  • Upgrading the Alienware laptop graphic card by replacing the older one with the newer one

Upgrading the Alienware laptop graphic card using external graphic card

If you own a later model of Alienware laptop and looking to upgrade its graphic card, then there is good news for you as your laptop might have a dedicated port for connecting the e-GPU. To connect an Alienware graphic amplifier or e-GPU you need PCI express interface between the laptop and the graphics card so the thunderbolt 3 port can serve this purpose.

In the late versions there are dedicated external graphic ports, so you simply need to plug your e-GPU in your laptop and connect the graphic amplifier with the power supply. If you are interested in buying one, then click here. However, Dell has recently launched a new e-GPU that is Polaris which can be connected to the newer laptops using the thunderbolt 4 port and will remove the necessity of any dedicated port for external graphic card, also it comes with a water cooling system.

Upgrading the Alienware laptop graphic card by making changes in the hardware

Another way of upgrading the graphic card of an Alienware laptop is by making changes to hardware which is quiebro a complicated process and is suitable only if you are well aware of components of the laptop and their working. Moreover, the list provided below shows the model which supports the upgradation of their GPU, and if you have the similar model as in the list then visit here and select the upgrades you want to do to your laptop.

On a serious note,if you are planning to buy a new Alienware laptop and you have a plan to upgrade it in near future then go for the Alienware area 51m as it is a fully customizable laptop.

List of Alienware laptops whose GPU can be upgraded

Not all Alienware laptops have the option of GPU upgradation as it depends on the internal design of the laptop because some have integrated graphic card, and some have discrete graphic cards. So, here is the list of Alienware laptops whose GPU can be upgraded:

  • Alienware Area 51-m
  • Alienware 18 (R3)
  • Alienware M18X (R2)
  • Alienware M18X (R1)
  • Alienware M18X (R1)
  • Alienware M17 (R6)
  • Alienware M17X (R4)
  • Alienware M18X (R1)
  • Alienware M17X (R3)
  • Alienware M17X (R2)
  • Alienware M17X (R1)
  • Alienware M18X (R1)
  • Alienware M15X (R1)


Alienware is the flagship series of the Dell, which is known for its performance, however as the laptop age its newer versions are launched making it outdated. The GPU is one of the main components of a laptop because it powers up the display and provides users with a great gaming experience. So with the passage of time, it needs to be upgraded, this guide explains the two ways by which you can upgrade your graphic card of Alienware laptop.

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The Raspberry Pi uses the SD-card as a primary storage device allowing users the space to install different applications or packages on the device. However, it also gets hammered with the presence of excess log files (system record files) that may reduce the performance and lifespan of the SD-card. Log2RAM is a bunch of scripts designed especially for the Raspberry Pi users that changes the physical location of log files to RAM in order to increase the SD card performance.

In this tutorial, you will see how you can improve the SD card performance of Raspberry Pi using Log2RAM.

Improve SD card performance of Raspberry Pi using Log2RAM

Log2RAM pushes the log files to the RAM and these files get deleted upon reboot because RAM is a volatile memory. The following steps will guide you in improving your Raspberry Pi’s SD card performance through Log2RAM:

Step 1: Update Raspberry Pi

First, run the following commands to update the packages on your Raspberry device.

$ sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

Step 2: Install Rsync

Next, you will need to install Rsync software on your Raspberry Pi device that allows you to synchronize the contents between the two parties (source and destination).

Step 3: Add GPG Key

Now, add GPG key require to successfully add Log2RAM repository using the following command:

$ sudo wget -O /usr/share/keyrings/azlux-archive-keyring.gpg

Step 4: Add Log2RAM Repository

Next, you will require to add a Log2RAM repository using the following command in order to install the latest version of the software on your Raspberry Pi.

$ echo «deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/azlux-archive-keyring.gpg] bullseye main» | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/azlux.list

Step 5: Update Packages

After adding the Log2RAM repository, update Raspberry Pi packages list through following command:

The above output confirms that the repository list is successfully updated on Raspberry Pi.

Step 6: Install Log2RAM

Now, you can install Log2RAM on Raspberry Pi through following command:

$ sudo apt install log2ram

Step 7: Reboot Raspberry Pi

After the installation, reboot the Raspberry Pi device.

Step 8: Check Log2RAM Status

After the reboot, check Log2RAM status using the following command:

$ systemctl status log2ram.service

Step 9: Configuring Log2RAM

After the reboot, use the following command to open configuration file of Log2RAM on Raspberry Pi:

$ sudo nano /etc/log2ram.conf

Now, you will need to specify the amount of RAM you want to allocate for the mount by locating the line “SIZE=40M”. You can set the size to a maximum 128M. You can proceed to the next step as 40M is enough for the log files as they aren’t large enough to fill up the space.

After ensuring and configuring the Log2RAM service on your Raspberry Pi, your log files will now synchronize to SD card and it will also limit the amount of data on your SD card. Thus, it helps to extend your SD card lifespan. To view the log files go to the location”/varhdd.log”.

You can also confirm the Log2RAM allocation using the following command:

The above output confirms that Log2RAM is successfully configured on Raspberry Pi and all your Raspberry Pi records are stored in it.


Log2RAM offload the record files to RAM on your Raspberry Pi, thus reducing the number of writes to the SD card. With this tool, the lifespan of the Raspberry Pi SD card is greatly improved. The above-mentioned steps will help you in increasing your SD card performance by installing Log2RAM. After the installation and configuration, it will handle the log files by itself.

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