Listado de la etiqueta: String


A string is a type of variable that stores data of characters, symbols, alphabets, etc. A multiline string is formed by joining single-line strings, forming a paragraph. It is unnecessary to have all the lines with the same alignment; we can use strings with different alignments to be stored in a single variable. It is the easiest way to make the long string get splitted into different small lines. We use quotes to enclose these lines. All these lines are initialized by using an alpha character along with them. Simply a multiline is created by joining single-line strings along with the spaces or newlines to form multiline strings. In this tutorial, we will use different approaches to create multiline strings in C sharp on the Linux operating system.”

Use of Multiline String

As for a single variable, there is no limit on the memory allocation like arrays or other structures, etc., so the benefit of using a single variable to store a multiline string is that it takes a small memory area instead of the memory used in declaring a single-line string in a separate string type variable separately.

Example 1

As the name indicates, a string will contain multiple lines in it. These lines can be the same or different having several characters in them. We have included a simple example here in which a string variable contains different lines. To execute the program, we first use two basic libraries here. The first one is the system library which includes all the classes and objects in the program. The second header file is used for the input and output streaming. Whenever we want to display anything or get input from the user, we use this library.

# Using System;

# Using System.IO;

Inside the main program, a string-type variable is declared. This contains three lines separately, making the strings a multiline string. Irrespective of the lines you add to the string, it is collectively a single variable.

There is no need to display the contents of the string separately. All the variables’ lines are displayed through the single variable by using its name. As through the console line, we have used only the variable’s name; all data will be accessed automatically. To apply a single-time double quote on all the string lines, we have used ‘@’ at the start of the strings.

Save the code and then execute it using the Linux terminal to display the results. Use the MCS compiler for the compilation of the C sharp code. After the compilation, Mico is used to execute the code.

$ MCS file.cs

$ mandril file.exe

On the execution, you will see that all the lines declared to the variable in the specified sequence are displayed in the same way when the code is executed. It means that whatever number of spaces you used or provide blank lines, the resultant will be the same as we used in the input variable.

Example 2

This example deals with having a long paragraph with 5 lines with symbols and characters. All the symbols and characters will be displayed because of using inverted commas. The string variable is initialized with “@” to add strings. Each line contains spaces in different places. It is unnecessary to end a single line where the sentence is finished. We have used arbitrary spaces between the words in lines and after the sentence has ended.

# String str = @»sample……».

The alpha sign will quote the whole paragraph.

A unique approach is used to display the content on the screen. This is through the variable and the textual. Literals are those contents used directly in the statement as it is. These are written with inverted quotes. So, use the sign alpha to display a new string with multiple characters and symbols.

Whereas the variable is the one that contains the content, as described above. So using the variable’s name directly in the console statement will display its contents as we did in the first example. Concatenation is the method used here to combine both the string variable and the textual. This is a built-in feature of string that is used to add two strings to one another. We will display the string with the variable using an operator ‘+’ to add two strings in the console statement.

On the execution, you will see that both the textual and the value inside the variable are displayed together. The sequence of the paragraph is maintained. The spaces and gaps between the lines are the same as when declaring the string.

Since it has been proved that we can use multiline strings to be displayed on the console terminal through concatenation.

Example 3

This example deals with displaying data individually through the console statement. All data types will be displayed collectively in a string. A date variable is used to have the DateTime.Now function that takes the current date from the system. Two double variables have float values inside them. And a constant integer type variable is used to align the text on the console screen.

At the time of execution, the first line will display the sum of two double values we have used. This addition will be done simply by using the ‘+’ operator. This resultant value will be used for the alignment in the next line. First, we have done the right alignment, and then the left alignment is used by the variable. In the last line, the string variable that contains the name is used along with the date function to display the current date from the system. The date is accompanied by the time taken from the Date Time function.

When we run the source code, you will see that all the strings directly used as Literals are added to the variables to get the content present inside them.

Example 4

Another example of the multiline string is used here in which three lines of strings are aligned differently. Each line contains strings and symbols surrounded by inverted commas. A single string variable will contain all the words. These all words are accompanied by the alpha sign.

We will use the variable in the console command to display all data.

You can see that all three lines are displayed through a single string variable.

Conclusion

A string is a variable that contains data in the form of characters and symbols. A multiline string is just like a simple string but with more than one line. There are several ways to create a multiline string. We have used different approaches in this aspect. A multiline string can be formed by using different lines collectively in a single variable. And also, by using a string statement at the time of display and variable, using the concatenation process to join variable and literals together. All the examples are implemented in Ubuntu operating system 20.04.



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“A string is a data variable that contains several characters to form a collective string. The variable string is declared as an object of the string and used to inhabit several features used in the string class. This tutorial will highlight the comparison methods in C sharp programming language.”

Example 1

In this example, we will use a built-in function of C sharp to compare two strings. As string class in C sharp is responsible for applying different features. So “string.Equals” is one of the functions in C sharp that is used to compare strings in the .Net framework. To elaborate on the concept, we have used the program’s source code. We have taken three strings. These three strings will be compared with one another by using the string.Equals function.

This function takes two parameters simultaneously; not all three strings will be compared at merienda. Whereas the return type of this function is a boolean. It returns either true or false values depending on the condition applied in the program.

# String.Equals(string1 string2);

As it is a comparison method, we will use an if-else statement to display the resultant values. If both the first two strings are the same, then the function will return True, so the first statement will be displayed that both strings are the same; otherwise, in the case of a False return, it will be displayed that both are different values.

# If(String.Equals (mystring1, mystring2))

# Console.Writeline($»{mystring1} and mystring2} are same»);

Both the values inside the variables will be displayed in the resultant statement.

A similar if-else statement will be applied for the other two comparisons between string 1 and string 3 and the comparison between string 2 and string 3. As input strings are taken so that the first two strings are the same while the third one is different, the results will be seen on execution.

To execute any source code in C sharp, we need to use a compiler to compile the code for the Ubuntu terminal. So here, we have used the MCS compiler. Afterward, the code is compiled; there is a need to execute the code in the file with the .exe extension. Macaco is recommended for this purpose.

$ Mcs file.cs

$ Macaco file.exe

Example 2

The second method used for string comparison is a string.Compare() method. String.Compare is also part of the String class in C sharp. This function also takes two strings as a parameter.

# String.Compare(string1, string2);

Irrespective of the first example, this function contains the return type as an integer value. Both the strings are compared. In case the first string is lexicographically less as compared to the second one, then the return value is less than zero. And if the second string is smaller in terms lexicographically, the value is greater than zero. And it returns zero if both are similar.

Hint: Lexicographical is a term of the order. Lexicographic order is a generalized form of alphabetical order. In other words, it is said to be a dictionary of a sequence of order symbols.

Three strings and one integer type data variable are declared. The integer data variable is used to store the resultant value in it. The string values are taken so that the first two strings are the same, while the third one is different.

# Result = string.Compare(str1 , str2);

# Console.writeline (result);

The same function is applied to all comparisons between these three strings.

From the results, you will see that all three different values are obtained. The first one is zero, which means both strings are the same; the second result is -1, which means that the second string is greater than the first, whereas 1 shows that the second string is smaller than the first one.

Example 3

The third method in use is the “CompareTo()” method. This function is a direct comparison method because it takes a single string in the parameter. This function is called through the object of string, and to whom it is compared is written inside the parameter of the function.

# String1. CompareTo(String2);

In this illustration, we have taken two different strings. We use an if-else statement to compare the returned value of two strings. This function also returns the integer values. And the criteria for the return data are the same as described for the string.compare() method. When the program is executed, both the strings will be compared with each other. When the compiler goes towards the if statement, according to that, if the result of the comparison is zero, then display statement as both the strings are different so it will not true, the result is minus 1, so according to this situation, the else part will be executed, and the statement will be displayed to console.

On the execution, you can see that it is stated that red is smaller than yellow.

Example 4

This example includes a comparison by character by character. This is also known as a custom comparison as we declare this function by ourselves; this is not a built-in function of a string. At a time, this also comprises a comparison of the two strings. First, we declare a method that is static outside the main function to compare two strings.

Now move towards the code to elaborate the working of this phenomenon in C sharp. A function that is declared for the comparison purpose will take two strings as an argument. Inside the function, a long integer type variable is declared to store the minimum of both string lengths. This is done through the built-in mathematics function Math.min().

# int len = Math.Min(myString1.Length, myString2.Length);

After that, we will use the “For” loop to iterate through the whole string character by character comparison. The loop will iterate till the last character of both the strings is compared. We have utilized the if statement to check two strings and compare them with each other.

# If (Mystring1[index] < mystring2[index])

And similarly, if that character of the first string is greater than the second string’s first character, then return 1, and zero is returned if both are equal.

In the end, the lengths of both strings are compared. If the second string is greater in length than the first one, then it returns 1; on the other hand, -1 is returned.

In the main program, two strings are declared. A function call is made, and the returned value is stored in the variable.

Conclusion

Comparison of strings is made through different approaches in C sharp programming language. We have implemented all the approaches in the Linux operating system. All methods are built-in functions of Strings, except the one that includes the user-defined function manually to compare two strings. String.compare(), String.equal(), and compareTo() are the basic functions of strings that assist in comparing two strings with each other by using strings as arguments. This tutorial will provide you with all the possible methodologies by using some elementary examples.



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“In this article, we will be discussing the string replace method in the System namespace of the C# programming language. The Replace() method works on the string variable by replacing them with the definition of the parameter. It is a very beneficial method as it would reduce the process of deleting and creating new strings altogether and saves us a hassle by simply allowing us to edit the content of the strings.”

Example 01: Replacing Blank Spaces Into Characters in a String Using the Replace() Function in Ubuntu 20.04

In this example, we will be discussing the use of replace function in a string through which we will be replacing blank spaces of a string variable into a character. The replace function will transform the old string and convert it into a new transformed string. After its transformation, we will analyze the difference between the old and the new string.

In the C# program, we initialized the string variable and assigned some text with blank spaces in between. Then we printed out the old string variable and transformed the old string variable using the replace function. In the replace function, we gave the blank spaces as the first parameter, and in the second parameter, we gave the character “,” to be replaced in the old string. This program will transform the old string variable by putting commas in place of the blank spaces. The replace function will be called inline of the printing of the new variable; it will transform the old spring and save the new value in it.

Text Description automatically generated

After compiling and executing the above C# program, we will get the following output as shown in the above snippet. As we can see in the output, the old thing had blank spaces between the letters, and after it was transformed, the blank spaces were replaced by commas “,”, this turned out to be a more refined look for the string variable.

Example 02: Correcting the Spelling of a Word in a String Variable Using the Replace Function in Ubuntu 20.04

This example will be focused on the grammatical or writing error overstrain variable in our programs and how we can edit them by simple function in the C sharp programming language. In this example, we will see how a part of a string that is being repeated multiple times can be corrected by the replace function. We will implement this example in the Ubuntu 20.04 environment to get a better understanding.

Text Description automatically generated

This is the program that we will follow for replacing a word that is spelled wrong in a string variable with the correctly spelled word. First, we will initialize a string variable and assign some text to it, but this text will have some spelling mistakes in it. Then we will print it out on the display screen for visual differences with the new string that we are creating. A new string variable will be initialized in which we will use the replace function on the old string, and in the parameter brackets, we will write the wrong spelled word in the first expression and the correctly spelled word in the second expression.

After compiling and executing the following program on the command line in the terminal of Ubuntu 20.04, we will get the following output:

Text Description automatically generated

As the output reflects the flamante string had the word “file” spelled wrong, after using the replace function and successfully correcting the spelling of the word “file” by placing it down in the parameters, we get the correct output for this string variable that we intended.

Example 03: Replacing Text of a String to Characters by Using the Replace Function in Ubuntu 20.04

In this example, we will be discussing the method for replacing the textual part of a string with some characters. The replace function allows different sets of parameters, so we can replace every aspect of the string with whatever property we like. In this example, a string variable will be Initialized, and some text will be assigned to it. After this, we will replace the text with some characters by using the replace function so let’s implement this in the C# programming language.

Text Description automatically generated

In the above piece of code, we have initialized a string variable labeled “s.” This string variable will then be printed and its flamante form; after this, we will be using the replace function to transform the last part of the string variable’s text into some characters, and this transformation will also be printed out. Then we will use the replace function merienda again, and this time the initial part of the text in this string variable will be transformed into some characters; this replacement will also be printed out to provide a visual difference between the old and new string.

Text Description automatically generated

If we compile and execute the above program, we will get the exact output as shown in the above snippet. As we can see, the string variable was partially replaced by some characters and then called again to be replaced with some characters.

Example 04: Chain Calling the Replace Function to Replace Letters Multiple Times in a String in Ubuntu 20.04

The Replace function can call itself repeatedly multiple times in one single line. We can use this property to utilize the replace function as an encryption mechanism as well. The chain call property will be used to make repetitive replacements to a string variable. We will implement this example in the Ubuntu 20.04 environment.

Text Description automatically generated

In this C# program, we will be implementing the chain calling of the Replace() Function to make multiple changes to a string variable. We will initialize a string variable with some characters in it and print it. Then we will call the replace function multiple times to replace the string variable’s alphabets with other alphabets.

The result of the compilation and execution of the C# program will give the following output:

Text Description automatically generated

As the output suggests that the alphabet “A” has been replaced with the alphabet “D.” We called the Replace function three times, and every time we replaced the alphabets in a descending order that is “A” to “B” to “C” to “D.”

Example 05: Replacing a Word and a Character in a String Variable Using the Replace Function in Ubuntu 20.04

The use of Replace function to alter a sentence will be examined in this example. We will first replace a wrongly spelled word with a correctly spelled word, and after this, we will replace a character with a blank space and make the string variable orderly and correct.

Text, letter Description automatically generated

In this program, we initialized a string variable with some text assigned to it, then we corrected the spelling of the word “file” in the text, and then we used the replace function again to replace the “,” with a blank space to filter the string variable and make it proper.

Text Description automatically generated

After compiling and executing the program, we will get the above output. In this output, we can see the transition of the string variable from one replace function to the other, filtering out all the errors in the text.

Conclusion

In this article, we discussed the Replace() function for the string variable used in C# programming. The Replace() function is utilized to replace a part of a string with the use of parameters. We implemented the string Replace() function in the C# programming language and studied the changes it can create to a string in the Ubuntu 20.04 environment.



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C# is an interesting programming language since it includes a variety of data types to keep developers challenged and interested. To interact with the data and generate instructions that meet the end objective, competence with the data kinds is necessary. A programmer may need to modify the data types while writing to understand how the variable performs within the code — this is termed Type Casting.

To put it another way, computer programmers convert one data type to another for a function to process a variable appropriately. Converting a string-point to an integer is the topic of this article.

There are a few things to keep in mind when converting a string to an integer.

What is Meant by String to int Conversion in C# in Ubuntu 20.04?

Type conversion (or typecasting) transforms a string data type into an integer type. This type of translation is fairly common because we acquire values as strings from inputs, command-line options, and databases, even though the values are integers.

How to Convert String to int in the C# in Ubuntu 20.04?

The Convert class has methods like Convert.oInt32, Int32.Parse, and Int32.TryParse is all functions that can be used to convert a string into an integer. Conversions are performed via these approaches. The source string can be any type of string, including a number, a character combination, or a null string.

When a provided string is a number or a floating-point number, It can be converting it from string to int using any of the methods outlined above, but the pairing of characters and a null string will raise an error, which must be caught using exceptional handling.

Example # 1: Program to Convert a String Into an int by Using the Parse Method in C# in Ubuntu 20.04

The Parse() method transforms a number’s string representation to a 16/32/64 bit signed integer. From here on out, we will solely examine 32-bit conversions for illustration. This method throws a FormatException if the string is not a set of numbers is a minor drawback. Although white spaces at the beginning and end of the string are ignored by Parse(), all characters must have a number value to be converted successfully. To handle the exception, we consider using the try…catch statement. But, here, we know that our string is numeric, so there is no need to try…catch a block.

In the first line of the above source code, we have a library “system” with the keyword “using.” This library provides an interface of the classes and methods of C#. Then, we have defined a namespace library as “Program1”. Within the namespace, we have established a class with the keyword “class” and assigned a name to the class as “square.” Inside our “square” class, we have a static void main function that takes a string[] args as an argument for the string array declaration.

Within the main block, we have a string type variable as “str,” which is stored with the numeric value with double quotes that is the string style representation. Then, we have another variable as “length” of type int. This variable utilizes the parse method. The parse method takes a single argument as “str.” The “str” value will be transformed into an int data type using the parse method. The variable “area” finds the area of the square by implementing the formula (length * length) and will display the area value through the writeLine message.

The parse method gives an integer value in the output as follows.

Example # 2: Program to Convert a String Into an int by Using the TryParse Method in C# in Ubuntu 20.04

The TryParse() methods are provided for all primitive types to convert a string to the requesting data type. Converting a string to an integer should be done in this manner. TryParse() is a good substitute for Parse() because it doesn’t throw an exception when it fails. Instead, if the conversion fails, it just returns False, which simplifies the implementation.

We provided the system library at the beginning of the above source code. The namespace is also specified with the name “Program2”. Then, we created a class called “Add” and invoked the main function from within it. Inside the main function of this class, we have declared a string type variable as “MyStr” and passed a numeric value to it with the string style. Then, we have the other variable “Value” of type int and initialize it with the value “zero.”

After that, we have called the TryParse method, which takes two parameters: the first one is the string variable “MyStr,” and the second one is the int variable “Value” with the keyword “out.” The int variable “Sum” is created, which takes the variable “Value” for the addition operation. Then, we passed the variable “Sum” inside the writeLine method to display.

The string is converted into int type and provides the sum of the integers as follows.

Example # 3: Program to Convert a String Into an int by Using the Convert Method in C# in Ubuntu 20.04

We have used the ConvertToInt32() function here; the only difference between Parse() and ConvertToInt32() is that ConvertToInt32() accepts null values and returns them. As a result, the value is zero. If the string is not numeric, this technique will throw a FormatException. To fix this problem, a try-catch block might be utilized. In this example, we have used exceptional handling, so the try block will raise the exception if it occurs, and the catch block will accept it and write any exception that occurred.

In our third source code, we have again included the system library and the namespace, specified as “Program3”. Then, we have a class called “Circle” inside our namespace block. The class “Circle” has its main public function. The main function of the class has a string variable declaration as “Str_val” and initializes it with the value “null.”

After that, we have to try…catch the definition. Firstly, in the try block, we have called the convert method to which “Str_val” is passed as an argument and assigned to a variable “Diameter.” The other variable, “Radius,” is also defined in the try block, which will return the radius of the circle by dividing the diameter by the value “2”. The circle’s radius will be presented as an integer. Outside the try block, the catch block is implemented for the exception that occurred and prints the message for which the exception occurred.

Hence, the output is zero as we have the string value “null.”

Conclusion

We presented three methods for converting an integer to a string in C# and discussed how to choose between them depending on the source of your input and your confidence in it. Exceptions are costly, and including them in the program flow is not a smart practice. However, they can be handy for extracting critical information, such as the Convert() method’s Overflow condition. All of the strategies listed above are equally effective, but each has its own trade-offs. On the premise of the factors discussed in this article, we propose selecting the best option.



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By the end of this tutorial, you will understand how to use the astype() function in Pandas. This function allows you to cast an object to a specific data type.

Let us go exploring.

Function Syntax

The function syntax is as illustrated below:

DataFrame.astype(dtype, copy=True, errors=‘raise’)

The function parameters are as shown:

  1. dtype – specifies the target data type to which the Pandas object is cast. You can also provide a dictionary with the data type of each target column.
  2. copy ­– specifies if the operation is performed in-place, i.e., affects the innovador DataFrame or creating a copy.
  3. errors – sets the errors to either ‘raise’ or ‘ignore.’

Return Value

The function returns a DataFrame with the specified object converted to the target data type.

Example

Take a look at the example code shown below:

# import pandas
import pandas as pd
df = pd.DataFrame({
    ‘col1’: [10,20,30,40,50],
    ‘col2’: [60,70,80,90,100],
    ‘col3’: [110,120,130,140,150]},
    index=[1,2,3,4,5]
)
df

Convert Int to Float

To convert the ‘col1’ to floating-point values, we can do:

df.col1.astype(‘float64’, copy=True)

The code above should convert ‘col1’ to floats as shown in the output below:

Convert to Multiple Types

We can also convert multiple columns to different data types. For example, we convert ‘col1’ to float64 and ‘col2’ to string in the code below.

print(f«before: {df.dtypes}n«)
df = df.astype({
    ‘col1’: ‘float64’,
    ‘col2’: ‘string’
})
print(f«after: {df.dtypes}»)

In the code above, we pass the column and the target data type as a dictionary.

The resulting types are as shown:

Convert DataFrame to String

To convert the entire DataFrame to string type, we can do the following:

The above should cast the entire DataFrame into string types.

Conclusion

In this article, we covered how to convert a Pandas column from one data type to another. We also covered how to convert an entire DataFrame into string type.

Happy coding!!



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